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Jesus T.S.,University Miguel Hernandez | Hoenig H.,Durham Veterans Administration Medical Center | Hoenig H.,Duke University
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

Abstract There is substantial interest in mechanisms for measuring, reporting, and improving the quality of health care, including postacute care (PAC) and rehabilitation. Unfortunately, current activities generally are either too narrow or too poorly specified to reflect PAC rehabilitation quality of care. In part, this is caused by a lack of a shared conceptual understanding of what construes quality of care in PAC rehabilitation. This article presents the PAC-rehab quality framework: an evidence-based conceptual framework articulating elements specifically pertaining to PAC rehabilitation quality of care. The widely recognized Donabedian structure, process, and outcomes (SPO) model furnished the underlying structure for the PAC-rehab quality framework, and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framed the functional outcomes. A comprehensive literature review provided the evidence base to specify elements within the SPO model and ICF-derived framework. A set of macrolevel-outcomes (functional performance, quality of life of patient and caregivers, consumers' experience, place of discharge, health care utilization) were defined for PAC rehabilitation and then related to their (1) immediate and intermediate outcomes, (2) underpinning care processes, (3) supportive team functioning and improvement processes, and (4) underlying care structures. The role of environmental factors and centrality of patients in the framework are explicated as well. Finally, we discuss why outcomes may best measure and reflect the quality of PAC rehabilitation. The PAC-rehab quality framework provides a conceptually sound, evidence-based framework appropriate for quality of care activities across the PAC rehabilitation continuum. © 2015 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Source

Punnen S.,University of California at San Francisco | Freedland S.J.,Duke University | Freedland S.J.,Durham Veterans Administration Medical Center | Presti Jr. J.C.,Stanford University | And 10 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2014

Background The University of California, San Francisco, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical (CAPRA-S) score uses pathologic data from radical prostatectomy (RP) to predict prostate cancer recurrence and mortality. However, this clinical tool has never been validated externally. Objective To validate CAPRA-S in a large, multi-institutional, external database. Design, setting, and participants The Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) database consists of 2892 men who underwent RP from 2001 to 2011. With a median follow-up of 58 mo, 2670 men (92%) had complete data to calculate a CAPRA-S score. Intervention RP. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The main outcome was biochemical recurrence. Performance of CAPRA-S in detecting recurrence was assessed and compared with a validated postoperative nomogram by concordance index (c-index), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis. Prediction of cancer-specific mortality was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and the c-index. Results and limitations The mean age was 62 yr (standard deviation: 6.3), and 34.3% of men had recurrence. The 5-yr progression-free probability for those patients with a CAPRA-S score of 0-2, 3-5, and 6-10 (defining low, intermediate, and high risk) was 72%, 39%, and 17%, respectively. The CAPRA-S c-index was 0.73 in this validation set, compared with a c-index of 0.72 for the Stephenson nomogram. Although CAPRA-S was optimistic in predicting the likelihood of being free of recurrence at 5 yr, it outperformed the Stephenson nomogram on both calibration plots and decision curve analysis. The c-index for predicting cancer-specific mortality was 0.85, with the caveat that this number is based on only 61 events. Conclusions In this external validation, the CAPRA-S score predicted recurrence and mortality after RP with a c-index >0.70. The score is an effective prognostic tool that may aid in determining the need for adjuvant therapy. © 2013 European Association of Urology. Source

Van Houtven C.H.,Durham Veterans Administration Medical Center | Van Houtven C.H.,Duke University | Coe N.B.,Boston College | Skira M.M.,University of Georgia
Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2013

Cross-sectional evidence in the United States finds that informal caregivers have less attachment to the labor force. The causal mechanism is unclear: do children who work less become informal caregivers, or are children who become caregivers working less? Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, we identify the relationship between informal care and work in the United States, both on the intensive and extensive margins, and examine wage effects. We control for time-invariant individual heterogeneity; rule out or control for endogeneity; examine effects for men and women separately; and analyze heterogeneous effects by task and intensity. We find modest decreases-2.4 percentage points-in the likelihood of working for male caregivers providing personal care. Female chore caregivers, meanwhile, are more likely to be retired. For female care providers who remain working, we find evidence that they decrease work by 3-10. hours per week and face a 3 percent lower wage than non-caregivers. We find little effect of caregiving on working men's hours or wages. These estimates suggest that the opportunity costs to informal care providers are important to consider when making policy recommendations about the design and funding of public long-term care programs. © 2012. Source

Hunt C.M.,Duke University | Hunt C.M.,Durham Veterans Administration Medical Center | Yuen N.A.,Glaxosmithkline | Stirnadel-Farrant H.A.,Glaxosmithkline | Suzuki A.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Background/aims: Age-differences in the frequency and manifestations of drug-induced liver injury are not fully characterized. Data-mining analyses were performed to assess the impact of age on liver event reporting frequency with different phenotypes and agents. Methods: 236 drugs associated with hepatotoxicity were evaluated using the Empirical Bayes Geometric Mean (EBGM) of the relative reporting ratio with 90% confidence interval (EB05 and EB95) calculated for the age groups: 0-17, 18-64, and ≥ 65. years (or elderly), for overall, serious (acute liver failure), hepatocellular, and cholestatic liver injury, using the WHO Safety Report Database. Results: Overall, cases of age 0-17, 18-64, and 65. years or older comprised 6%, 62%, and 32% of liver event reports. Acute liver failure and hepatocellular injury were more frequently reported among children compared to adults and the elderly while reports with cholestatic injury were more frequent among the elderly (p < 0.00001). A potential to cause mitochondrial dysfunction was more prevalent among the drugs with increased pediatric reporting frequency while high lipophilicity and biliary excretion were more common among the drugs associated with higher reporting frequency in the elderly. Conclusion: Age-specific phenotypes and potential drug properties associated with age-specific hepatotoxicity were identified in reported liver events; further analyses are warranted. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hoenig H.,Durham Veterans Administration Medical Center | Hoenig H.,Duke University
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2014

This article uses a historical framework to review the rehabilitation treatment taxonomy (RTT). The needs and challenges in creating a comprehensive classification system for rehabilitation treatments are identified based on review of (1) the development of other biological classification systems and (2) the historical foundations for rehabilitation and related theoretical underpinnings. The historical overview is used to identify needs for refining the RTT, including (1) changes needed in the structure of the RTT to address the varied roles of environmental factors in the rehabilitation treatment process, (2) changes needed to link the RTT with clinical documentation and third-party reimbursement, and (3) revisions in the nomenclature for the RTT to enhance clear communication. Finally, challenges with the next steps in developing a comprehensive classification system for rehabilitation are discussed, including (1) the complexity needed to classify a dynamic process and to account for the agents, mechanisms, and objects targeted by that process and (2) the importance of a continued multidisciplinary approach to ensure a classification system that will be broadly useful for a highly diverse and rapidly evolving field. © 2014 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Source

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