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Durham, NC, United States

Ausserhofer D.,University of Basel | Anderson R.A.,Duke University | Colon-Emeric C.,Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center | Schwendimann R.,University of Basel
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2013

Background: The Safety Organizing Scale is a valid and reliable measure on safety behaviors and practices in hospitals. Purpose of the Study: This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Safety Organizing Scale-Nursing Home version (SOS-NH). Design and Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis of staff survey data, we examined validity and reliability of the 9-item Safety SOS-NH using American Educational Research Association guidelines. Subjects and Setting: This substudy of a larger trial used baseline survey data collected from staff members (n= 627) in a variety of work roles in 13 nursing homes (NHs) in North Carolina and Virginia. Results: Psychometric evaluation of the SOS-NH revealed good response patterns with low average of missing values across all items (3.05%). Analyses of the SOS-NH's internal structure (eg, comparative fit indices= 0.929, standardized root mean square error of approximation= 0.045) and consistency (composite reliability= 0.94) suggested its 1-dimensionality. Significant between-facility variability, intraclass correlations, within-group agreement, and design effect confirmed appropriateness of the SOS-NH for measurement at the NH level, justifying data aggregation. The SOS-NH showed discriminate validity from one related concept: communication openness. Implications: Initial evidence regarding validity and reliability of the SOS-NH supports its utility in measuring safety behaviors and practices among a wide range of NH staff members, including those with low literacy. Further psychometric evaluation should focus on testing concurrent and criterion validity, using resident outcome measures (eg, patient fall rates). © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Source

Freedland S.J.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Choeurng V.,GenomeDx Biosciences | Howard L.,Duke University | De Hoedt A.,Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center | And 14 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2016

Background: Despite salvage radiation therapy (SRT) for recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP), some patients still progress to metastases. Identifying these men would allow them to undergo systemic therapy including testing novel therapies to reduce metastases risk. Objective: To test whether the genomic classifier (GC) predicts development of metastatic disease. Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective multi-center and multi-ethnic cohort study from two academic centers and one Veterans Affairs Medical Center in the United States involving 170 men receiving SRT for recurrent PCa post-RP. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Time from SRT to development of metastatic disease tested using Cox regression, survival c-index, and decision curve analysis. Performance of GC was compared to the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Score and Briganti risk models based on these metrics. Results and limitations: With a median 5.7 yr follow-up after SRT, 20 patients (12%) developed metastases. On multivariable analysis, for each 0.1 unit increase in GC (scaled from 0 to 1), the hazard ratio for metastasis was 1.58 (95% confidence interval 1.16-2.17; p = 0.002). Adjusting for androgen deprivation therapy did not materially change the results. The c-index for GC was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.73-0.88) versus 0.63-0.65 for published clinico-pathologic risk models. The 5-yr cumulative incidence of metastasis post-SRT in patients with low, intermediate, and high GC scores was 2.7%, 8.4%, and 33.1%, respectively (p <. 0.001). Conclusions: While validation in larger, prospectively collected cohorts is required, these data suggest GC is a strong predictor of metastases among men receiving SRT for recurrent PCa post-RP, accurately identifying men who are excellent candidates for systemic therapy due to their very high-risk of metastases. Patient summary: Genomic classifier and two clinico-pathologic risk models were evaluated on their ability to predict metastases among men receiving salvage radiation therapy for recurrent prostate cancer. Genomic classifier was able to identify candidates for further therapies due to their very high-risk of metastases. Genomic classifier is a strong predictor of metastases among men receiving salvage radiation for recurrent prostate cancer and accurately identifies men who are excellent candidates for systemic therapy due to their very high-risk of metastases despite salvage radiation after prostatectomy. © 2016 European Association of Urology. Source

Augustine C.,Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center | Augustine C.,Duke University | Yoshimoto Y.,Yamaguchi University | Olson Jr. J.A.,Duke Institute for Genome science and Policy | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2010

In-transit metastatic melanoma, which typically presents as multifocal lesions, provides a unique setting to evaluate the utility of gene signatures for defining optimal regional therapeutic strategies and assessing the efficacy of treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether a single multifocal lesion is representative of residual tumor burden in terms of gene expression signatures predictive of response to therapy. Using microarray-based gene expression profiling, we examined 55 in-transit melanoma lesions across 29 patients with multifocal disease. Principal component analysis, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, one-way ANOVA, binary regression analysis, and gene signatures predictive of oncogenic pathway activation were used to compare patterns of gene expression across all multifocal lesions from a patient. Patterns of gene expression were highly similar (P < 0.006; average r = 0.979) across pretreatment lesions from a single patient compared with the significantly different patterns observed across patients (P < 0.05). The findings presented in this study show that individual melanoma tumor nodules in patients with multifocal disease harbor similar patterns of gene expression and a single lesion can be used to predict response to chemotherapy, evaluate the activation status of oncogenic signaling pathways, and characterize other aspects of the biology of an individual patient's disease. These results will facilitate the use of gene expression profiling in melanoma regional therapy clinical trials to not only select optimal regional chemotherapeutic agents but to also allow for a more rational identification of candidates for specific targeted therapies and evaluation of their therapeutic efficacy. Mol Cancer Ther © 2010 AACR. Source

Xie G.,Duke University | Choi S.S.,Duke University | Choi S.S.,Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center | Syn W.-K.,Duke University | And 7 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2013

Objective: Vascular remodelling during liver damage involves loss of healthy liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC) phenotype via capillarisation. Hedgehog (Hh) signalling regulates vascular development and increases during liver injury. This study therefore examined its role in capillarisation. Design: Primary LSEC were cultured for 5 days to induce capillarisation. Pharmacological, antibody-mediated and genetic approaches were used to manipulate Hh signalling. Effects on mRNA and protein expression of Hh-regulated genes and capillarisation markers were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunoblot. Changes in LSEC function were assessed by migration and tube forming assay, and gain/loss of fenestrae was examined by electron microscopy. Mice with acute or chronic liver injury were treated with Hh inhibitors; effects on capillarisation were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Freshly isolated LSEC expressed Hh ligands, Hh receptors and Hh ligand antagonist Hhip. Capillarisation was accompanied by repression of Hhip and increased expression of Hh-regulated genes. Treatment with Hh agonist further induced expression of Hh ligands and Hh-regulated genes, and upregulated capillarisation-associated genes; whereas Hh signalling antagonist or Hh ligand neutralising antibody each repressed expression of Hh target genes and capillarisation markers. LSEC isolated from SmoloxP/loxP transgenic mice that had been infected with adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase to delete Smoothened showed over 75% knockdown of Smoothened. During culture, Smoothened-deficient LSEC had inhibited Hh signalling, less induction of capillarisation-associated genes and retention of fenestrae. In mice with injured livers, inhibiting Hh signalling prevented capillarisation. Conclusions: LSEC produce and respond to Hh ligands, and use Hh signalling to regulate complex phenotypic changes that occur during capillarisation. Source

Coombes J.D.,Institute of Hepatology | Swiderska-Syn M.,Duke University | Dolle L.,Liver Cell Biology Laboratory LIVR | Reid D.,University of Calgary | And 19 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2015

Background: Chronic liver injury triggers a progenitor cell repair response, and liver fibrosis occurs when repair becomes deregulated. Previously, we reported that reactivation of the hedgehog pathway promotes fibrogenic liver repair. Osteopontin (OPN) is a hedgehog-target, and a cytokine that is highly upregulated in fibrotic tissues, and regulates stem-cell fate. Thus, we hypothesised that OPN may modulate liver progenitor cell response, and thereby, modulate fibrotic outcomes. We further evaluated the impact of OPN-neutralisation on murine liver fibrosis. Methods: Liver progenitors (603B and bipotential mouse oval liver) were treated with OPN-neutralising aptamers in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, to determine if (and how) OPN modulates liver progenitor function. Effects of OPN-neutralisation (using OPN-aptamers or OPN-neutralising antibodies) on liver progenitor cell response and fibrogenesis were assessed in three models of liver fibrosis (carbon tetrachloride, methionine-choline deficient diet, 3, 5,-diethoxycarbonyl-1, 4-dihydrocollidine diet) by quantitative real time (qRT) PCR, Sirius-Red staining, hydroxyproline assay, and semiquantitative double-immunohistochemistry. Finally, OPN expression and liver progenitor response were corroborated in liver tissues obtained from patients with chronic liver disease. Results: OPN is overexpressed by liver progenitors in humans and mice. In cultured progenitors, OPN enhances viability and wound healing by modulating TGF-β signalling. In vivo, OPN-neutralisation attenuates the liver progenitor cell response, reverses epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in Sox9+ cells, and abrogates liver fibrogenesis. Conclusions: OPN upregulation during liver injury is a conserved repair response, and influences liver progenitor cell function. OPN-neutralisation abrogates the liver progenitor cell response and fibrogenesis in mouse models of liver fibrosis. Source

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