Durham, United Kingdom
Durham, United Kingdom

Durham University is a collegiate research university in Durham, North East England. It was founded by Act of Parliament in 1832 and granted a Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England for more than 600 years and has claim to be the third oldest university in England.Durham University has a unique estate, which includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Castle to a 1930s Art Deco Chapel. The university also owns and manages the World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university's ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle , Palace Green, and the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin's Library.As a collegiate university, its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide lectures to students, while the colleges are responsible for the domestic arrangements and welfare of undergraduate students, graduate students, post-doctoral researchers and some university staff.The university is currently ranked 5th to 8th by all the latest league tables of the British universities. "Long established as the leading alternative to Oxford and Cambridge", the university attracts "a largely middle class student body" according to The Times's Good University Guide. Durham has the second highest proportion of privately educated students as well as the best quality of student life in the country according to the Lloyds Bank rankings. The university was named Sunday Times University of the Year in 2005, having previously been shortlisted for the award in 2004.Current academics include 15 Fellows of the Royal Society, 18 Fellows of the British Academy, 16 Fellows of the Academy of Social science, 2 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 2 Fellows of the Academy of Medical science.The university is a member of the Russell Group of UK universities after previously being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is also affiliated with several university groups including the N8 Research Partnership and the Matariki Network of Universities.The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson in January 2012. The post-nominal letters of graduates have Dunelm attached to indicate the university. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Durham University | Date: 2015-05-28

A method for chemically modifying a peptide, derivative or analogue thereof is described. The method comprises contacting a peptide, derivative or analogue thereof with a fluoro-heteroaromatic compound to activate the peptide, derivative or analogue thereof. The activated peptide, derivative or analogue thereof is then contacted with a nucleophile or base to create a chemically modified peptide, derivative or analogue thereof.


Patent
Durham University | Date: 2016-11-22

The invention provides a micro-organ composite which comprises a core group of cells and an outer layer of cells, wherein the cells of the core group are mesenchymal cells and the cells of the outer layer are epithelial cells or wherein the cells of the core group are epithelial cells and the cells of the outer layer are mesenchymal cells, and wherein the core group of cells is at least partially encapsulated by the outer layer of cells.


Patent
Durham University | Date: 2015-04-28

A method and apparatus for electrochemical etching are disclosed. The method comprises immersing parts of objects (2) to be etched in an electrolyte (4), applying a voltage between the objects (2) and at least one electrode (6) to cause an electrochemical reaction between the objects (2) and the electrolyte (4), and positioning the objects (2) and electrodes (6) relative to each other such that a reaction product accumulates on the objects (2) during the reaction to reduce the rate of the reaction.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRAIA-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 10.01M | Year: 2017

Europe has become a global leader in optical-near infrared astronomy through excellence in space and ground-based experimental and theoretical research. While the major infrastructures are delivered through major national and multi-national agencies (ESO, ESA) their continuing scientific competitiveness requires a strong community of scientists and technologists distributed across Europes nations. OPTICON has a proven record supporting European astrophysical excellence through development of new technologies, through training of new people, through delivering open access to the best infrastructures, and through strategic planning for future requirements in technology, innovative research methodologies, and trans-national coordination. Europes scientific excellence depends on continuing effort developing and supporting the distributed expertise across Europe - this is essential to develop and implement new technologies and ensure instrumentation and infrastructures remain cutting edge. Excellence depends on continuing effort to strengthen and broaden the community, through networking initiatives to include and then consolidate European communities with more limited science expertise. Excellence builds on training actions to qualify scientists from European communities which lack national access to state of the art research infrastructures to compete successfully for use of the best available facilities. Excellence depends on access programmes which enable all European scientists to access the best infrastructures needs-blind, purely on competitive merit. Global competitiveness and the future of the community require early planning of long-term sustainability, awareness of potentially disruptive technologies, and new approaches to the use of national-scale infrastructures under remote or robotic control. OPTICON will continue to promote this excellence, global competitiveness and long-term strategic planning.


Groves C.,Durham University
Nature Materials | Year: 2013

Mesta and co-workers obtained a 3D, molecular-scale simulation of a multilayer WOLED (white organic light-emitting diodes). The model can explicitly account for charge transport in layers that are only a few molecules thick, as well as for molecular-scale heterogeneities in the WOLED structure. The researchers measured the light emission from the respective WOLED layers by means of a technique first used to examine single-layer OLEDs, and report excellent agreement between the measured and simulated emission profiles. The analysis also shows that very few of the excitons are generated in the red-emitting layer, thus highlighting the crucial role of exciton transfer between layers. It also reveals a significant loss mechanism, due to the formation of 20% of the excitons in the interlayer between the green- and blue-emitting layers. Mesta and collaborators show that the red and green phosphorescent dyes act as strong traps for electrons and holes, leading to strong heterogeneity in operation for these layers.


Groves C.,Durham University
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

The effect of cascaded energy heterojunctions on geminate charge recombination in organic photovoltaic devices is examined using a kinetic Monte Carlo model. The structure of the cascaded heterojunction, which encourages spatial separation of the geminate charge pair, is varied to recreate that found in ternary blends and tri-layers, as well as that formed by self-organization in binary blends in which one component crystallizes. It is shown that substantial reductions in charge recombination can indeed be achieved with parameters similar that reported for P3HT:PCBM solar cells. However, the efficacy of cascaded energy heterojunctions is shown to be limited for thick cascade layers (>10 nm). This provides guidance as how to design ternary organic photovoltaics, whilst also offering a possible explanation of low recombination efficiency in some semi-crystalline OPVs. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Fielding S.M.,Durham University
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2014

Many soft materials, including microgels, dense colloidal emulsions, star polymers, dense packings of multilamellar vesicles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic 'glassy' features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). Despite being technically transient, such bands may in practice persist for a very long time and so be mistaken for the true steady state response of the material in experimental practice. After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Steed J.W.,Durham University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

This tutorial review looks at the formation of low molecular weight gels from molecular principles using the well-explored supramolecular chemistry of ureas as an example. Synthesising lessons learned from classical urea inclusion chemistry, ureas in crystal engineering, ureas in self-assembly, urea functional groups in anion binding and sensing, and ureas as organocatalysts lead to the development and understanding of a new class of anion-tunable, urea-based soft materials. This review concludes with a look at emerging application areas for tunable gel-phase materials as controlled crystal growth media, both in templating metallic nanoparticles and in the growth and isolation of high quality crystals of molecular organic compounds, including polymorphic pharmaceuticals. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


The concept of a molecular-based electronic technology has been evolving for over 50 years, and the development of molecular designs for such components over this period has drawn heavily on studies of intramolecular charge transfer in mixed-valence complexes and related systems. Recent advances in methods for the assembly and measurement of device characteristics of metal|molecule|metal junctions have brought the realisation of the considerable promise of the area within a tantalisingly close reach. This review presents a selective summary of the chemistry, spectroscopic properties and electronic structures of bimetallic complexes [{LxM}(μ-bridge){MLx}]n+ based primarily, but not exclusively, on the Ru(PP)Cp' and Mo(dppe)(η-C7H7) fragments and alkynyl based bridging ligands. The molecular design strategies that lead to a wide spectrum of electronic characteristics in these systems are described. Examples range from weakly coupled mixed-valance complexes through more strongly coupled systems in which the electronic states of the bridging ligand are intimately involved in electron transfer processes to complexes. An argument is made that the latter are better described in terms of redox non-innocent bridging ligands supported by metal-based donor substituents rather than strongly coupled mixed-valence complexes. The significance of these results on the further development of metal complexes for use as components within a hybrid molecular electronics technology are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: STFC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 5.91M | Year: 2017

Astronomy attracts the imagination of the public to an extent that only very few other branches of science can match - this is due, in large part, to the fundamental nature of the questions it addresses: the origin of the Universe and our place within it. Astronomy is immediately accessible to every human by simply gazing up into the night sky to look the Moon, the planets and stars. Since the dawn of civilisation this has provoked questions about the origins of the Earth, stars and our Solar System, as well as the origins of the Universe. Over the past thirty years we have seen the emergence of a standard model in cosmology describing the constituents of our Universe, as well as a plausible explanation for the origin and evolution of all structure within it. According to this model, we live in a universe where at least two thirds of all mass-energy is now in the form of a dark energy field which is causing the Universe to expand at an ever increasing rate. About a quarter of the mass-energy is in the form of dark matter, most probably a new weakly interacting elementary particle yet to be detected on Earth (and hence of great interest to particle physicists). Only the remaining five percent of the mass-energy is in the form of ordinary, or baryonic, matter of which, at the present-day, only about a tenth is in stars and planets such as the Earth, and the rest resides mostly as gas in between galaxies. The structures formed by dark and baryonic matter are thought to have been seeded by quantum fluctuations imprinted in the density field of the Universe at the earliest instants of the Big Bang. These produced weak sound waves in the near-uniform primordial plasma that left observable imprints on the heat left over from the Big Bang, emitted when the Universe was only 400,000 years old (now visible as the Cosmic Microwave Background). These tiny ripples grew into the full richness of structures we see around us in the Universe today: galaxies, groups, clusters and larger-scale structures. It is this transformation from a near-uniform primordial soup to a cosmic web of structure that is the focus of our proposal. Our programme knits together cutting-edge theoretical research into the earliest phases of the Universe with theoretical and observational projects to determine the formation and evolution of structure in the Universe and to confront the predictions of our models with our latest observational results, while exploiting instrumentation developments pursued in Durham. We will explore astrophysical clues to the identity of the dark matter and the nature of the dark energy, focus on the evolution of galaxies back to the earliest times in the Universe and the influence which their environment has had on their properties. We will investigate the formation and evolution of black holes and their role in determining the structure and properties of galaxies and larger scale structures, using the latest instruments on ground-based observatories and Earth-orbiting satellites.

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