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Durham, United Kingdom

Durham University is a collegiate research university in Durham, North East England. It was founded by Act of Parliament in 1832 and granted a Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first universities to commence tuition in England for more than 600 years and has claim to be the third oldest university in England.Durham University has a unique estate, which includes 63 listed buildings, ranging from the 11th-century Castle to a 1930s Art Deco Chapel. The university also owns and manages the World Heritage Site in partnership with Durham Cathedral. The university's ownership of the World Heritage Site includes Durham Castle , Palace Green, and the surrounding buildings including the historic Cosin's Library.As a collegiate university, its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and 16 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide lectures to students, while the colleges are responsible for the domestic arrangements and welfare of undergraduate students, graduate students, post-doctoral researchers and some university staff.The university is currently ranked 5th to 8th by all the latest league tables of the British universities. "Long established as the leading alternative to Oxford and Cambridge", the university attracts "a largely middle class student body" according to The Times's Good University Guide. Durham has the second highest proportion of privately educated students as well as the best quality of student life in the country according to the Lloyds Bank rankings. The university was named Sunday Times University of the Year in 2005, having previously been shortlisted for the award in 2004.Current academics include 15 Fellows of the Royal Society, 18 Fellows of the British Academy, 16 Fellows of the Academy of Social science, 2 Fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 2 Fellows of the Academy of Medical science.The university is a member of the Russell Group of UK universities after previously being a member of the 1994 Group. Durham is also affiliated with several university groups including the N8 Research Partnership and the Matariki Network of Universities.The chancellor of the university is Sir Thomas Allen, who succeeded Bill Bryson in January 2012. The post-nominal letters of graduates have Dunelm attached to indicate the university. Wikipedia.

Groves C.,Durham University
Nature Materials | Year: 2013

Mesta and co-workers obtained a 3D, molecular-scale simulation of a multilayer WOLED (white organic light-emitting diodes). The model can explicitly account for charge transport in layers that are only a few molecules thick, as well as for molecular-scale heterogeneities in the WOLED structure. The researchers measured the light emission from the respective WOLED layers by means of a technique first used to examine single-layer OLEDs, and report excellent agreement between the measured and simulated emission profiles. The analysis also shows that very few of the excitons are generated in the red-emitting layer, thus highlighting the crucial role of exciton transfer between layers. It also reveals a significant loss mechanism, due to the formation of 20% of the excitons in the interlayer between the green- and blue-emitting layers. Mesta and collaborators show that the red and green phosphorescent dyes act as strong traps for electrons and holes, leading to strong heterogeneity in operation for these layers.

Steed J.W.,Durham University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2011

This highlight gives a brief flavour of the development of gels derived from low molecular weight gelators broadly in the first decade of the 2000's. A particular theme is the emergence of switchable gels and increasing hi-tech niche application areas. Control and exploitation of supramolecular gels forms a huge part of the grand challenge of directed assembly of extended structures with targeted properties. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Davis J.H.,Durham University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

The DAMA/LIBRA experiment searches for evidence of dark matter scattering off nuclei. Data from DAMA show 9.2σ evidence for an annual modulation, consistent with dark matter having a cross section around 2×10-40cm2. However, this is excluded by other direct detection experiments. We propose an alternative source of annual modulation in the form of neutrons, which have been liberated from material surrounding the detector by a combination of B8 solar neutrinos and atmospheric muons. The phase of the muon modulation lags 30 days behind the data; however, we show that adding the modulated neutrino component shifts the phase of the combined signal forward. In addition, we estimate that neutrinos and muons need ∼1000m3 of scattering material in order to generate enough neutrons to constitute the signal. With current data, our model gives as good a fit as dark matter, and we discuss prospects for future experiments to discriminate between the two. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Fielding S.M.,Durham University
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2014

Many soft materials, including microgels, dense colloidal emulsions, star polymers, dense packings of multilamellar vesicles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic 'glassy' features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). Despite being technically transient, such bands may in practice persist for a very long time and so be mistaken for the true steady state response of the material in experimental practice. After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Groves C.,Durham University
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

The effect of cascaded energy heterojunctions on geminate charge recombination in organic photovoltaic devices is examined using a kinetic Monte Carlo model. The structure of the cascaded heterojunction, which encourages spatial separation of the geminate charge pair, is varied to recreate that found in ternary blends and tri-layers, as well as that formed by self-organization in binary blends in which one component crystallizes. It is shown that substantial reductions in charge recombination can indeed be achieved with parameters similar that reported for P3HT:PCBM solar cells. However, the efficacy of cascaded energy heterojunctions is shown to be limited for thick cascade layers (>10 nm). This provides guidance as how to design ternary organic photovoltaics, whilst also offering a possible explanation of low recombination efficiency in some semi-crystalline OPVs. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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