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Apeldoorn, Netherlands

Arsenio A.M.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | Arsenio A.M.,Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology | Arsenio A.M.,Technical University of Delft | Pieterse I.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA | Year: 2013

This paper presents and discusses the significant role played by joints in the failures registered in drinking water distribution networks. The three most important failure mechanisms related are presented and a procedure to detect them through the visual measurement of the gap between pipes inside a joint is proposed. The procedure is proved to be a valuable source of information on joint condition after the assessment of a 600-m DN500 PVC pipe. © IWA Publishing 2013. Source


Bertelkamp C.,Technical University of Delft | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Verberk J.Q.J.C.,Technical University of Delft | And 2 more authors.
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

Dunea Duin en Water, a drinking water company in South Holland the Netherlands, wants to provide a multiple barrier treatment against organic micro pollutants (OMPs). Dunea considers extending its surface water pre-treatment, consisting of coagulation, micro straining and dual media rapid filters, with an advanced oxidation process (AOP), consisting of UV and hydrogen peroxide. The rapid sand filtrate has a low UV transmission which is an indication for high energy consumption during AOP and probably more by-product formation including AOC and nitrite. To overcome this problem two different pre-treatment techniques were compared: granular activated carbon filtration (GAC) and ion exchange (IEX). The main objective of this comparison study was to determine the effect of different pre-treatment techniques on the conversion of OMPs in the AOP installation. Furthermore, it was tried to assess the advantages and limitations of the two pre-treatment techniques. Both pre-treatment techniques showed an increase in conversion of the OMPs which was mainly caused by the lower DOC concentration obtained with pre-treatment. The maximal energy savings for GAC pre-treatment with MP lamps were 0.76 kWh/m3 = 0.06 €/m 3 which was insufficient to compensate for the fixed and operational costs of GAC pretreatment 0.56 €/m3. These energy savings were obtained for a very low DOC concentration of 0.24 mg/L C, implying high operational costs for regeneration, and no other scavengers were removed with GAC pre-treatment. Ion exchange showed the most promising results, a DOC concentration of 2.2 -2.3 mg/L was obtained for about 37.500 BV. For this DOC concentration the maximal energy savings were 0.58 kWh/m3 = 0.05 €/m3. The total costs for IEX are 0.07 €/m3. It was concluded that IEX pre-treatment for the AOP installation at Dunea is not feasible from an economical perspective. In addition, the nitrite formation does not seem to be advantageous compared to the situation without pre-treatment. Scavengers are removed in the first few BV but subsequently show desorption. Since the IEX columns are not operated simultaneously the positive effect of the removal of certain scavengers in the first few BV will smoothen and therefore will not make a significant difference. In case the positive effect of the removal of certain scavengers is preserved this will lead to higher regeneration frequencies of the resin implying higher operational costs. IEX pre-treatment would only be a viable option in case: - the costs of IEX treatment (processing the brine) would decrease - if less AOC is formed than without IEX pre-treatment - if the requirement of 80% atrazine conversion is not reached without IEX pretreatment - or if it is decided to completely refurbish the current pre-treatment. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved. Source


Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea Duin en Water | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Derks J.G.,Technical University of Delft | And 4 more authors.
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

Dunea duin en water, the water company for The Hague and surroundings, has an objective of producing drinking water of impeccable quality, particularly with respect to organic micropollutans (OMPs). OMPs are only a minor part of the total natural organic matter (NOM) in raw water, posing a challenge in targeting removal of a very small, specific part of the NOM, without removing all of the NOM. In addition, OMPs encompass a broad field of physicochemical properties, which make their removal by a single treatment step difficult. By combining AOP with ARR, two complementary processes are expected to provide a synergistic hybrid system for removal of OMPs, according to the Dutch multiple barrier approach. Dunea produces drinking water from the Meuse River, which contains a variety of organic micropollutants as a result of upstream activity. Dunea is performing research to extend the current multiple barrier treatment (consisting of pre-treatment, artificial recharge and recovery (ARR), post-treatment) with advanced oxidation processes (AOP) via UV and hydrogen peroxide, situated at the pre-treatment location in Bergambacht, before ARR. The degradation of organic micropollutants as a result of advanced oxidation using low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP) mercury vapour ultraviolet lamps has been assessed by means of pilot-scale (5 m3/h) experiments using river water pre-treated by dual media rapid sand filtration. The UV doses were varied between 400 and 800 mJ/cm2, the peroxide dose were varied as 0, 5 and 10 ppm. Atrazine, Bromacil, Ibuprofen and NDMA were spiked (10-20 μg/L) and used as model compounds. Both lamp types obtained over the year an average atrazine degradation of 72% for LP and 75% for MP lamps. The installed power for the LP reactor was 0.26 kWh/m3 and for the MP reactor 0.88 kWh/m3. The electrical energy per order, the amount of energy to achieve 1 log reduction, was calculated for atrazine as 0.45 kWh/m3 for the LP reactor and 1.45 kWh/m3 for the MP reactor. In addition, in case of LP lamps the formation of nitrite can be considered negligible while in case of MP lamps nitrite levels increased up to 0.6 mg/l NO2-. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved. Source


Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea Duin en Water | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Van Altena L.P.,Dunea Duin en Water | And 3 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2012

Serial ozone/peroxide/low pressure UV was tested for an advanced oxidation process (AOP) application on pre-treated surface water in a pilot plant. The pilot plant consisted of an ozone loop reactor followed by a low pressure UV (LP-UV) reactor. Fourteen model compounds and 6 or 10 ppm hydrogen peroxide were dosed to the water. Ozone doses varied from 0.5 to 2.0 g/m 3 and UV doses varied, depending on the UV transmission (73-83%) of the water, between 700 and 950 mJ/cm 2. The treatment process was evaluated on bromate formation, compound conversion and energy demand. The bromate formation during the O 3/H 2O 2 process was kept lower than 0.5 μg/L by using a peroxide dose of 6 ppm and an ozone dose of 1.5 mg/L. With a 1.5 mg/L ozone dose and 6 ppm of peroxide, 8 out of 14 compounds were converted by more than 90% with an energy consumption of 0.027 kW h/m 3. During the subsequent UV/H 2O 2, the E EO for atrazine was 0.52 kW h/m 3; together with the O 3/H 2O 2, the E EO for serial AOP was 0.55 kW h/m 3, which was 0.73 kW h/m 3 for UV/H 2O 2 only. During O 3/H 2O 2 treatment, the DOC decreased with 0.2 mg/L and the UV-T 254 increased with almost 5%, illustrating the synergistic effect of serial AOP. When 3 UV reactors in series were used, with each reactor dosing 1/3 of the total dose, the total conversion increased 5-15%. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Dunea Duin en Water | Lekkerkerker-Teunissen K.,Technical University of Delft | Knol A.H.,Dunea Duin en Water | Derks J.G.,Technical University of Delft | And 7 more authors.
Ozone: Science and Engineering | Year: 2013

Three different types of ultraviolet lamps were tested for the advanced oxidation process application on pre-treated surface water in a pilot plant. The pilot setup consisted of three parallel reactors with either medium pressure, low pressure or dielectric barrier discharge UV lamps. Four model compounds (atrazine, bromacil, ibuprofen and N-nitroso-dimethylamine (NDMA)) and 0, 5 or 10 ppm hydrogen peroxide were dosed. Low pressure lamps were shown to have the lowest energy demand, calculated as electrical energy per order, followed by dielectric barrier discharge lamps and then medium pressure lamps. Medium pressure lamps gave the highest formation of genotoxic activity and nitrite formation, whereas no formation of genotoxic activity was observed for either of the other lamp types. © 2013 Copyright 2013 International Ozone Association. Source

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