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Dundee, United Kingdom

Wagner W.,Paul Ehrlich Institute | Ajuh P.,Dundee Cell Products Ltd | Lower J.,Paul Ehrlich Institute | Wessler S.,Paul Ehrlich Institute | Wessler S.,University of Salzburg
Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2010

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal diseases associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) to the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc). Since the molecular mechanisms in pathogenesis are widely unclear, we analyzed the global phospho-proteome and detected a differential pattern of tyrosine- and threonine phosphorylated proteins in PrPSc-replicating and pentosan polysulfate (PPS)-rescued N2a cells in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. To quantify phosphorylated proteins, we performed a SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) analysis and identified 105 proteins, which showed a regulated phosphorylation upon PrPScinfection. Among those proteins, we validated the dephosphorylation of stathmin and Cdc2 and the induced phosphorylation of cofilin in PrPSc-infected N2a cells in Western blot analyses. Our analysis showed for the first time a differentially regulated phospho-proteome in PrPScinfection, which could contribute to the establishment of novel protein markers and to the development of novel therapeutic intervention strategies in targeting prion-associated disease. © 2010 Wagner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Dove B.K.,Public Health England | Surtees R.,Public Health England | Surtees R.,University of Leeds | Bean T.J.H.,Public Health England | And 7 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2012

Influenza A virus is one of the world's major uncontrolled pathogens, causing seasonal epidemics as well as global pandemics. This was evidenced by the recent emergence and now prevalence of the 2009 swine origin pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. In this study, quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture was used to investigate the changes in the host cell proteome in cells infected with pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. The study was conducted in A549 cells that retain properties similar to alveolar cells. Several global pathways were affected, including cell cycle regulation and lipid metabolism, and these could be correlated with recent microarray analyses of cells infected with influenza A virus. Taken together, both quantitative proteomics and transcriptomic approaches can be used to identify potential cellular proteins whose functions in the virus life cycle could be targeted for chemotherapeutic intervention. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Emmott E.,University of Leeds | Rodgers M.A.,University of Leeds | Macdonald A.,University of Leeds | McCrory S.,University of Leeds | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2010

Virus-host interactions involve complex interplay between viral and host factors, rendering them an ideal target for proteomic analysis. Here we detail a high throughput quantitative proteomics analysis of Vero cells infected with the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a positive strand RNA virus that replicates in the cytoplasm. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used in conjunction with LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify 1830 cellular and two viral proteins from IBV-infected cells. Fractionation of cells into cytoplasmic, nuclear, and nucleolar extracts was used to reduce sample complexity and provide information on the trafficking of proteins between the different compartments. Each fraction showed a proportion of proteins exhibiting ≥2-fold changes in abundance. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that proteins that changed in response to infection could be grouped into different functional categories. These included proteins regulated by NF-κB- and AP-1-dependent pathways and proteins involved in the cytoskeleton and molecular motors. A luciferase-based reporter gene assay was used to validate the up-regulation of AP-1- and NF-κB-dependent transcription in IBV-infected cells and confirmed using immunofluorescence. Immunofluorescence was used to validate changes in the subcellular localization of vimentin and myosin VI in IBV-infected cells. The proteomics analysis also confirmed the presence of the viral nucleocapsid protein as localizing in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and nucleolus and the viral membrane protein in the cytoplasmic fraction. This research is the first application of SILAC to study total host cell proteome changes in response to positive sense RNA virus infection and illustrates the versatility of this technique as applied to infectious disease research. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Li J.,University of Leeds | Hou B.,University of Leeds | Tumova S.,University of Leeds | Muraki K.,Aichi Gakuin University | And 25 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2014

The mechanisms by which physical forces regulate endothelial cells to determine the complexities of vascular structure and function are enigmatic. Studies of sensory neurons have suggested Piezo proteins as subunits of Ca2+ -permeable non-selective cationic channels for detection of noxious mechanical impact. Here we show Piezo1 (Fam38a) channels as sensors of frictional force (shear stress) and determinants of vascular structure in both development and adult physiology. Global or endothelial-specific disruption of mouse Piezo1 profoundly disturbed the developing vasculature and was embryonic lethal within days of the heart beating. Haploinsufficiency was not lethal but endothelial abnormality was detected in mature vessels. The importance of Piezo1 channels as sensors of blood flow was shown by Piezo1 dependence of shear-stress-evoked ionic current and calcium influx in endothelial cells and the ability of exogenous Piezo1 to confer sensitivity to shear stress on otherwise resistant cells. Downstream of this calcium influx there was protease activation and spatial reorganization of endothelial cells to the polarity of the applied force. The data suggest that Piezo1 channels function as pivotal integrators in vascular biology. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source


Lleres D.,University of Dundee | Denegri M.,University of Dundee | Biggiogera M.,University of Pavia | Ajuh P.,University of Dundee | And 2 more authors.
EMBO Reports | Year: 2010

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-M (hnRNP-M) is an abundant nuclear protein that binds to pre-mRNA and is a component of the spliceosome complex. A direct interaction was detected in vivo between hnRNP-M and the human spliceosome proteins cell division cycle 5-like (CDC5L) and pleiotropic regulator 1 (PLRG1) that was inhibited during the heat-shock stress response. A central region in hnRNP-M is required for interaction with CDC5L/PLRG1. hnRNP-M affects both 5′ and 3′ alternative splice site choices, and an hnRNP-M mutant lacking the CDC5L/PLRG1 interaction domain is unable to modulate alternative splicing of an adeno-E1A mini-gene substrate. © 2010 EUROPEEAN MoleEcular Biology Oorganization. Source

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