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Han E.,Duksung Womens University
Archives of Pharmacal Research | Year: 2014

Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a commonly used short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent. However, because of the risk of drug abuse and propofol related death, in Korea propofol is a controlled drug. In this review, the analytical methods using liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, or LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify propofol or its metabolites in blood were described. The validation data for the analytical methods and propofol concentrations in the blood were reviewed. © 2013 The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea.


Kim T.-H.,Duksung Womens University
Journal of Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Recent progress has been made in understanding the mechanism of ABA signal transduction based on identification of novel genetic components as well as decoding of signaling networks. This has resulted in a wide range of genetic targets for manipulation of crop genomes to obtain drought-tolerant traits. Early events in ABA signaling involve PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors as well as two phosphatase/kinase enzyme pairs, PP2Cs and SnRK2s, with opposite functions. In the end, a number of transcription factors under the control of SnRK2s activate the ABA-dependent gene expression resulting in drought-resistant responses. Due to the evolutionary conservation of ABA signaling and plant drought stress responses in vascular plants, genes identified as major ABA signaling components in Arabidopsis can be used as targets for genetic manipulation of profitable crop species. Therefore, modulation of genes or application of small compounds that specifically function in ABA signal transduction might offer a unique pathway to addressing the global demand aims for the drought- or water deficiency-resistant crop lines without growth penalty. © 2014 Korean Society of Plant Biologists and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Choi E.J.,Duksung Womens University | Kim G.-H.,Duksung Womens University
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2013

In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative activity of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein in three breast cancer cell lines with different patterns of estrogen receptor (ER) and c.erbB.2 protein expression (ERα-positive MCF-7 cells, c-erbB-2-positive SK-BR-3 cells and ERα/c-erbB-2-positive ZR-75-1). After treatment at various concentrations (1-200 μM for 72 h), the effect of daidzein and genistein on the proliferation of different cell types varied; these effects were found to be associated with ERα and c-erbB-2 expression-Daidzein and genistein exhibited biphasic effects (stimulatory or inhibitory) on proliferation and ERα expression in MCF-7 cells. Although 1 μM daidzein significantly stimulated cell growth, ERα expression was unaffected. However, genistein showed marked increases in proliferation and ERα expression after exposure to <10 μM genistein. Notably, the inhibition of cell proliferation by 200 μM genistein was greater compared to that by daidzein at the same concentration-Daidzein and genistein significantly inhibited proliferation of SK-BR-3 and ZR-75-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ERα and c-erbB-2 expression was reduced by daidzein and genistein in both SK-BR-3 and ZR-75-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effect of genistein was greater compared to that of daidzein. In conclusion, the isoflavones daidzein and genistein showed anti-breast cancer activity, which was associated with expression of the ERα and c-erbB-2 receptors.


Kang K.-T.,Duksung Womens University
Toxicological Research | Year: 2014

Endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), including nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), play pivotal roles in regulating vascular tone. Reduced EDRFs cause impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, or endothelial dysfunction. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) is consistently observed in conduit vessels in human patients and experimental animal models of hypertension. Because small resistance arteries are known to produce more than one type of EDRF, the mechanism(s) mediating endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries may be different from that observed in conduit vessels under hypertensive conditions, where vasorelaxation is mainly dependent on NO. EDHF has been described as one of the principal mediators of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries in normotensive animals. Furthermore, EDHF appears to become the predominant endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation pathway when the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3)/NO pathway is absent, as in NOS3-knockout mice, whereas some studies have shown that the EDHF pathway is dysfunctional in experimental models of hypertension. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding EDRFs in small arteries under normotensive and hypertensive conditions.


Jung J.,Duksung Womens University
Toxicological Research | Year: 2014

Xenograft models of human cancer play an important role in the screening and evaluation of candidates for new anticancer agents. The models, which are derived from human tumor cell lines and are classified according to the transplant site, such as ectopic xenograft and orthotopic xenograft, are still utilized to evaluate therapeutic efficacy and toxicity. The metastasis model is modified for the evaluation and prediction of cancer progression. Recently, animal models are made from patient-derived tumor tissue. The patient-derived tumor xenograft models with physiological characters similar to those of patients have been established for personalized medicine. In the discovery of anticancer drugs, standard animal models save time and money and provide evidence to support clinical trials. The current strategy for using xenograft models as an informative tool is introduced.


Kim T.-H.,Duksung Womens University
Molecules and Cells | Year: 2012

Abiotic and biotic stresses are the major factors that negatively impact plant growth. In response to abiotic environmental stresses such as drought, plants generate resistance responses through abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction. In addition to the major role of ABA in abiotic stress signaling, ABA signaling was reported to downregulate biotic stress signaling. Conversely recent findings provide evidence that initial activation of plant immune signaling inhibits subsequent ABA signal transduction. Stimulation of effector-triggered disease response can interfere with ABA signal transduction via modulation of internal calcium-dependent signaling pathways. This review overviews the interactions of abiotic and biotic stress signal transduction and the mechanism through which stress surveillance system operates to generate the most efficient resistant traits against various stress condition. © 2012 KSMCB.


Ham M.,Duksung Womens University | Moon A.,Duksung Womens University
Archives of Pharmacal Research | Year: 2013

The primary reason for the high mortality rate of breast cancer is metastasis, which can result in a poor survival rate. The tumor environment is important for promotion and invasion of cancer cells. Recent studies have shown that inflammation is associated with breast cancer. Therefore, it is important to investigate the role of the inflammatory and microenvironment in breast cancer progression and metastasis. The present review summarizes some of the markers for inflammation and breast cancer invasion, which may aid in the design of an appropriate therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The following four inflammatory markers are discussed in this review: (1) Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs); (2) Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs); (3) Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P); (4) C-reactive protein (CRP). TAMs are commonly found in breast cancer patients, and high infiltration is positively correlated with poor prognosis and low survival rate. MMPs are well-known for their roles in the degradation of ECM components when cancer cells invade and migrate. MMPs are also associated with inflammation through recruitment of a variety of stromal cells such as fibroblasts and leukocytes. S1P is an inflammatory lipid and is involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, and migration. Recent studies indicate that S1P participates in breast cancer invasion in various ways. CRP is used clinically to indicate the outcome of cancer patients as well as acute inflammatory status. This review summarizes the current understanding on the role of S1P in CRP expression which promotes the breast epithelial cell invasion, suggesting a specific mechanism linking inflammation and breast cancer. The present review might be useful for understanding the relationship between inflammation and breast cancer for the development of pharmacological interventions that may control the primary molecules involved in the breast cancer microenvironment. © 2013 The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea.


Lee J.-H.,Duksung Womens University | Kim G.-H.,Duksung Womens University
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

Antioxidant activities of flavonoids were decreased in the order of flavonols > flavanones > flavones. Inhibitory intensities for hyaluronidase and collagenase reaction differed clearly according to flavonoid subclasses. Kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and rutin in flavonols inhibited hyaluronidase reaction specifically, while apigenin, luteolin, baicalin, and baicalein in flavones showed specific inhibition to collagenase reaction. In addition, the flavonoids, except baicalin and catechin, inhibited potently LPS-induced nitrite production in a dose-dependent manner, which might be mainly due to the suppression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Quercetin and luteolin showed the strongest inhibitory activities on 15-lipoxygenase (LOX), and quercetin showed relatively potent inhibition on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) reaction. Otherwise, all tested flavonoids possessed the inhibitory activity to COX-2 reaction, and especially luteolin, kaempferol, hesperetin, and naringin showed relatively the potent inhibition on COX-2 reaction. This report elucidated the anti-inflammatory activities, such as the antioxidant property, inhibition of NO production, and inhibition of inflammatory enzymes (hyaluronidase, collagenase, LOX, and COXs) of several subclass flavonoids. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Disclosed are antibrowning agents containing the extracts of chrysanthemum indicum for preventing browning of fruits and vegetables, wherein the extracts of chrysanthemum having good effects on inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity effectively prevent the browning of fruits and vegetables.


Chung W.-H.,Duksung Womens University
Personal and Ubiquitous Computing | Year: 2012

Mobile surveillance service is regarded as one of the Internet applications to which much attention is recently given. However, the time and cost problem resulting from using heterogeneous platforms and proprietary protocols must be a burden to developing such systems and expanding their services. In this paper, we present a framework of mobile surveillance service for smartphone users. It includes the design and implementation of a video server and a mobile client called smartphone watch. A component-based architecture is employed for the server and client for easy extension and adaptation. We also employ the well-known standard web protocol HTTP to provide higher compatibility and portability than using a proprietary one. Three different video transmission modes are provided for efficient usage of limited bandwidth resource. We demonstrate our approach via real experiments on a commercial smartphone. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011.

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