Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James B. Duke established The Duke Endowment, at which time the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke.The university's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. Duke's main campus—designed largely by African American architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. The first-year-populated East Campus contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center.Duke's research expenditures in the 2012 fiscal year were $1.01 billion, the seventh largest in the nation. Competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference, Duke's athletic teams, known as the Blue Devils, have captured 15 team national championships, including four by its high profile men's basketball team. Duke was ranked among the world's best universities by both THE and QS, while tying for 8th in the 2015 U.S. News & World Report "Best National Universities Rankings." In 2014, Thomson Reuters named 32 Duke professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers. The only schools with more primary affiliations were Harvard, Stanford, and UC Berkeley. Wikipedia.
Cullen B.R.,Duke University
Genes and Development | Year: 2011
Analyses of small RNA expression profiles have revealed that several DNA viruses-including particularly, herpesviruses-express high levels of multiple viral microRNAs (miRNAs) in infected cells. Here, I review our current understanding of how viral miRNAs influence viral replication and pathogenesis and discuss how viruses reshape the pattern of cellular miRNA expression. Indeed, viruses are now known to both activate and repress the expression of specific cellular miRNAs, and disrupting this process can perturb the ability of viruses to replicate normally. In addition, it is now clear that virally encoded miRNAs play a key role in inhibiting antiviral innate immune responses and can also promote cell transformation in culture. While our understanding of how viruses interact with miRNAs remains somewhat rudimentary, it is nevertheless already clear that these interactions can play a critical role in mediating viral pathogenesis and therefore may represent novel and highly specific targets for therapeutic intervention. © 2011 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source
Newgard C.B.,Duke University
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2012
Fatty acids (FA) and FA-derived metabolites have long been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Surprisingly, application of metabolomics technologies has revealed that branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and related metabolites are more strongly associated with insulin resistance than many common lipid species. Moreover, the BCAA-related signature is predictive of incident diabetes and intervention outcomes and uniquely responsive to therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, in animal feeding studies, BCAA supplementation requires the background of a high-fat diet to promote insulin resistance. This Perspective develops a model to explain how lipids and BCAA may synergize to promote metabolic diseases. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source
Poss K.D.,Duke University
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2010
Questions about how and why tissue regeneration occurs have captured the attention of countless biologists, biomedical engineers and clinicians. Regenerative capacity differs greatly across organs and organisms, and a range of model systems that use different regenerative strategies and that offer different technical advantages have been studied to understand regeneration. Making use of this range of systems and approaches, recent advances have allowed progress to be made in understanding several key issues that are common to natural regenerative events. These issues include: the determination of regenerative capacity; the importance of stem cells, dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation; how regenerative signals are initiated and targeted; and the mechanisms that control regenerative proliferation and patterning. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source
Muoio D.M.,Duke University
Cell | Year: 2014
Normal energy metabolism is characterized by periodic shifts in glucose and fat oxidation, as the mitochondrial machinery responsible for carbon combustion switches freely between alternative fuels according to physiological and nutritional circumstances. These transitions in fuel choice are orchestrated by an intricate network of metabolic and cell signaling events that enable exquisite crosstalk and cooperation between competing substrates to maintain energy and glucose homeostasis. By contrast, obesity-related cardiometabolic diseases are increasingly recognized as disorders of metabolic inflexibility, in which nutrient overload and heightened substrate competition result in mitochondrial indecision, impaired fuel switching, and energy dysregulation. This Perspective offers a speculative view on the molecular origins and pathophysiological consequences of metabolic inflexibility. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source
Duke University | Date: 2015-10-12
Disclosed herein are biomarkers useful for identifying and/or classifying bacterial infections in a subject.