Durham, NC, United States
Durham, NC, United States

Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James B. Duke established The Duke Endowment, at which time the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke.The university's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. Duke's main campus—designed largely by African American architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation. The first-year-populated East Campus contains Georgian-style architecture, while the main Gothic-style West Campus 1.5 miles away is adjacent to the Medical Center.Duke's research expenditures in the 2012 fiscal year were $1.01 billion, the seventh largest in the nation. Competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference, Duke's athletic teams, known as the Blue Devils, have captured 15 team national championships, including four by its high profile men's basketball team. Duke was ranked among the world's best universities by both THE and QS, while tying for 8th in the 2015 U.S. News & World Report "Best National Universities Rankings." In 2014, Thomson Reuters named 32 Duke professors to its list of Highly Cited Researchers. The only schools with more primary affiliations were Harvard, Stanford, and UC Berkeley. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Georgetown University and Duke University | Date: 2016-04-05

Disclosed are heterocyclic compounds that are ligands for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The compounds are useful for treating a mammal suffering from any one of a range of therapeutic indications, including Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, dyskinesias, Tourettes syndrome, schizophrenia, attention deficit disorder, anxiety, pain, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, chemical substance abuse, alcoholism, memory deficit, pseudodementia, Gansers syndrome, migraine pain, bulimia, obesity, premenstrual syndrome or late luteal phase syndrome, tobacco abuse, post-traumatic syndrome, social phobia, chronic fatigue syndrome, premature ejaculation, erectile difficulty, anorexia nervosa, disorders of sleep, autism, mutism, trichotillomania, and hypothermia.


Patent
Duke University | Date: 2016-05-13

The present invention generally relates to methods of modulating Ca_(v)1.2 channels and Ca_(v)1.2 channel activators.


Patent
Duke University | Date: 2016-06-17

Provided herein are compounds, compositions, including pharmaceutical compositions, having anti-cancer activity. Also provided are methods for diagnosing, detecting, and treating cancer in a subject, as well as a method for evaluating cancer stage in a subject, wherein the methods include determining the amount of a Ca^(2+)/calmodulin dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) in a sample. Further provided are methods of screening and identifying a compound that inhibits CaMKK.


Patent
Duke University and Los Alamos National Security LLC | Date: 2015-03-19

In certain aspects the invention provides HIV-1 immunogens, including envelopes (CH505) and selections therefrom, and methods for swarm immunizations using combinations of HIV-1 envelopes.


Systems, methods and related devices used to produce and collect polarized noble gas to inhibit, suppress, detect or filter alkali metal nanoclusters to preserve or increase a polarization level thereof. The systems can include a pre-sat chamber that has an Area Ratio between 20 and 500.


Patent
Duke University | Date: 2016-07-13

The present invention provides monoclonal antibodies and antigen-binding fragments thereof that specifically bind to CD20, as well as pharmaceutical compositions comprising the same. The invention further provides methods of using the monoclonal antibodies, antigen-binding fragments, and pharmaceutical compositions, for example, in methods of depleting B cells or in treating B cell disorders. Also provided are cells, nucleic acids and methods for producing the monoclonal antibodies.


Patent
Immunolight Llc. and Duke University | Date: 2016-08-25

Products, compositions, systems, and methods for modifying a target structure which mediates or is associated with a biological activity, including treatment of conditions, disorders, or diseases mediated by or associated with a target structure, such as a virus, cell, subcellular structure or extracellular structure. The methods may be performed in situ in a non-invasive manner by placing a nanoparticle having a metallic shell on at least a fraction of a surface in a vicinity of a target structure in a subject and applying an initiation energy to a subject thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure directly or via a modulation agent. The nanoparticle is configured, upon exposure to a first wavelength _(1), to generate a second wavelength _(2 )of radiation having a higher energy than the first wavelength _(1). The methods may further be performed by application of an initiation energy to a subject in situ to activate a pharmaceutical agent directly or via an energy modulation agent, optionally in the presence of one or more plasmonics active agents, thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure. Kits containing products or compositions formulated or configured and systems for use in practicing these methods.


Patent
Immunolight Llc., Duke University and North Carolina State University | Date: 2015-04-22

A system and method for imaging or treating a disease in a human or animal body. The system provides to the human or animal body a pharmaceutical carrier including one or more phosphors which are capable of emitting ultraviolet or visible light into the body and which provide x-ray contrast. The system includes one or more devices which infuse a diseased site with a photo-activatable drug and the pharmaceutical carrier, an initiation energy source comprising an x-ray or high energy source which irradiates the diseased site with at least one of x-rays, gamma rays, or electrons to thereby initiate emission of said ultraviolet or visible light into the body, and a processor programmed to at least one of 1) produce images of the diseased site or 2) control a dose of said x-rays, gamma rays, or electrons to the diseased site for production of said ultraviolet or visible light at the diseased site to activate the photoactivatable drug.


Patent
Advanced Liquid Logic, Inc. and Duke University | Date: 2016-12-01

Methods and devices for conducting chemical or biochemical reactions that require multiple reaction temperatures are described. The methods involve moving one or more reaction droplets or reaction volumes through various reaction zones having different temperatures on a microfluidics apparatus. The devices comprise a microfluidics apparatus comprising appropriate actuators capable of moving reaction droplets or reaction volumes through the various reaction zones.


Patent
Johns Hopkins University and Duke University | Date: 2016-11-16

We found mutations of the R132 residue of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) in the majority of grade II and III astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas as well as in glioblastomas that develop from these lower grade lesions. Those tumors without mutations in IDH1 often had mutations at the analogous R172 residue of the closely related IDH2 gene. These findings have important implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of malignant gliomas.


Patent
Duke University and The Government Of The United States As Represented By The Secretary Of Health And Human Services | Date: 2016-10-11

We tested the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a recombinant bispecific immunotoxin that recognizes both EGFRwt and tumor-specific EGFRvIII receptors. A single chain antibody was cloned from a hybridoma and fused to toxin, carrying a C-terminal peptide which increases retention within cells. The binding affinity and specificity of the recombinant bispecific immunotoxin for the EGFRwt and the EGFRvIII proteins was measured. In vitro cytotoxicity was measured. In vivo activity of the recombinant bispecific immunotoxin was evaluated in subcutaneous models and compared to that of an established monospecific immunotoxin. In our preclinical studies, the bispecific recombinant immunotoxin, exhibited significant potential for treating brain tumors.


Patent
Duke University and Emory University | Date: 2015-02-18

Provided herein are recombinant constructs, vectors and expression cassettes including a first promoter which is suitably a tRNA promoter operably connected to a first polynucleotide encoding a first single guide RNA and a second promoter operably connected to a second polynucleotide encoding a Cas9 polypeptide. The first single guide RNA includes a first portion complementary to a strand of a target sequence of a DNA virus and a second portion capable of interacting with the Cas9 polypeptide. Also provided are codon optimized Staphylococcus aureus derived Cas9 polynucleotides and polypeptides with nuclear localization signals and optionally an epitope tag. Also provided are constructs for production of sgRNAs including a tRNA. Methods of inhibiting viral replication, inhibiting expression of a target sequence from a virus or treating a viral infection or viral induced cancer using the compositions are also provided.


Patent
Duke University | Date: 2014-12-23

Described are methods and materials for diagnosing a subjects predisposition for cardiovascular disease by detecting a copper deficiency genetic marker, as well as methods of alleviating Cu transport impairment. Specifically, the Cu deficiency genetic marker may be within the gene encoding a transmembrane Cu transporter protein (Ctri) or its regulatory sequences.


Methods of making polycationic nanofibers by grafting cationic polymers onto electrospun neutral nanofibers and polycationic nanofibers produced by the methods are provided herein. In addition, methods of using the polycationic nanofibers to reduce inflammation, to adsorb anionic compounds such as heparin or nucleic acids, to inhibit the growth of microbes or inhibit the formation of a biofilm are also provided. The polycationic nanofibers may be in a mesh and may be included in a medical device, wound dressing, bandage, or as part of a graft.


A sensor comprising a semiconductor layer having a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and an oxide layer in electronic contact with the semiconductor layer is provided. A method of detecting an analyte molecule using such sensor is also provided.


Patent
Duke University | Date: 2016-11-14

Optical systems based on an objective lens comprising one or more plastic lens elements are disclosed. The inclusion of plastic lens element reduces one or more of system cost, size, weight, and/or complexity. The chromatic performance of some imaging systems in accordance with the present invention is improved by incorporation of a diffractive surface into the entry surface of the objective lens.


Methods and systems for large-scale face recognition. The system includes an electronic processor to receive at least one image of a subject of interest and apply at least one subspace model as a splitting binary decision function on the at least one image of the subject of interest. The electronic processor is further configured to generate at least one binary code from the at least one splitting binary decision function. The electronic processor is further configured to apply a code aggregation model to combine the at least one binary codes generated by the at least one subspace model. The electronic processor is further configured to generate an aggregated binary code from the code aggregation model and use the aggregated binary code to provide a hashing scheme.


Rapid radio frequency (RF) microwave devices and methods are disclosed. According to an aspect, a waveguide includes a body having first and second components that are attachable together to form an interior having a surface. Further, the waveguide includes a conductive material formed on the interior surface and shaped to convey electromagnetic waves.


Patent
Duke University | Date: 2016-08-26

System and Method for automatically removing blur and noise in a plurality of digital images. The system comprises an electronic processor configured to receive the plurality of digital images, perform motion estimation and motion compensation to align the plurality of digital images, determine an alignment of the plurality of digital images with respect to a reference frame, generate a consistency map based on the alignment of the plurality of digital images with respect to the reference frame, combine the plurality of digital images aligned with respect to the reference frame in the Fourier domain using a quality of alignment information from the consistency map to generate an aggregated frame, and apply a post-processing filter to enhance the quality of the aggregated frame.


Coffman T.M.,Duke University | Coffman T.M.,National University of Singapore
Nature Medicine | Year: 2011

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a very common disorder with a substantial impact on public health because of its associated complications. Despite the high prevalence of essential hypertension and years of research, the basic causes remain obscure. Here I review recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension. I present a general overview of the field and, by necessity, use broad strokes to portray recent progress and place it in context. For this purpose, I use illustrative examples from the large number of important developments in hypertension research over the last five years. The intent of this review is to provide a sense of where the field is progressing, with an emphasis on work that sheds light on pathogenic mechanisms and that is therefore likely to inform new translational advances. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Gu B.-M.,University of Michigan | van Rijn H.,University of Groningen | Meck W.H.,Duke University
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2015

Interval timing and working memory are critical components of cognition that are supported by neural oscillations in prefrontal-striatal-hippocampal circuits. In this review, the properties of interval timing and working memory are explored in terms of behavioral, anatomical, pharmacological, and neurophysiological findings. We then describe the various neurobiological theories that have been developed to explain these cognitive processes - largely independent of each other. Following this, a coupled excitatory - inhibitory oscillation (EIO) model of temporal processing is proposed to address the shared oscillatory properties of interval timing and working memory. Using this integrative approach, we describe a hybrid model explaining how interval timing and working memory can originate from the same oscillatory processes, but differ in terms of which dimension of the neural oscillation is utilized for the extraction of item, temporal order, and duration information. This extension of the striatal beat-frequency (SBF) model of interval timing (Matell and Meck, 2000, 2004) is based on prefrontal-striatal-hippocampal circuit dynamics and has direct relevance to the pathophysiological distortions observed in time perception and working memory in a variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Chavez J.A.,Duke University | Summers S.A.,Duke University | Summers S.A.,National University of Singapore
Cell Metabolism | Year: 2012

The recent implementation of genomic and lipidomic approaches has produced a large body of evidence implicating the sphingolipid ceramide in a diverse range of physiological processes and as a critical modulator of cellular stress. In this review, we discuss from a historical perspective the most important discoveries produced over the last decade supporting a role for ceramide and its metabolites in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and other obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Moreover, we describe how a ceramide-centric view of insulin resistance might be reconciled in the context of other prominent models of nutrient-induced insulin resistance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Patent
Duke University, Los Alamos National Security Llc, University of Pennsylvania, Boston University, The Uab Research Foundation and Stanford University | Date: 2013-09-12

The present invention relates, in general, to HIV-1 and, in particular, to broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies, and to HIV-1 immunogens and to methods of using such immunogens to induce the production of broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies in a subject (e.g., a human).


Patent
Duke University and Biomimetix Jv Llc | Date: 2015-01-21

A method of treating pruritus (itching) in a subject in need thereof is carried out by administering the subject an active agent in a treatment effective amount, wherein the active agent is a superoxide dismuate (SOD) mimetic. The SOD mimetic can be a complex of a metal (e.g., manganese) and an organic ligand, with suitable organic ligands including porphyrins, polyamines, salens, nitroxides, and fullerenes. Compositions for carrying out such methods are also described.


Patent
Immunolight Llc and Duke University | Date: 2015-05-19

Products, compositions, systems, and methods for modifying a target structure. The methods may be performed in a non-invasive manner by placing a nanoparticle having a metallic shell on at least a fraction of a surface in a vicinity of a target structure in a subject and applying an initiation energy thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure directly or via a modulation agent. The nanoparticle is configured, upon exposure to a first wavelength _(1), to generate a second wavelength _(2 )of radiation having a higher energy than the first wavelength _(1). The methods may further be performed by application of an initiation energy to activate a photoactivatable agent directly or via an energy modulation agent, optionally in the presence of one or more plasmonics active agents, thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure. Kits containing products or compositions formulated or configured and systems for use in practicing these methods.


Patent
Immunolight Llc and Duke University | Date: 2016-05-11

Products, compositions, systems, and methods for modifying a target structure which mediates or is associated with a biological activity, including treatment of conditions, disorders, or diseases mediated by or associated with a target structure, such as a virus, cell, subcellular structure or extracellular structure. The methods may be performed in situ in a non-invasive manner by application of an initiation energy to a subject thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure directly or via a modulation agent. The methods may further be performed by application of an initiation energy to a subject in situ to activate a pharmaceutical agent directly or via an energy modulation agent, optionally in the presence of one or more plasmonics active agents, thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure. Kits containing products or compositions formulated or configured and systems for use in practicing these methods.


The use of plasmonics enhanced photospectral therapy (PEPST) and exiton-plasmon enhanced phototherapy (EPEP) in the treatment of various cell proliferation disorders, and the PEPST and EPEP agents and probes used therein.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP.2012.1.3-1 | Award Amount: 12.95M | Year: 2013

The NanoMILE project is conceived and led by an international elite of scientists from the EU and US with the aim to establish a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of nanomaterial interactions with living systems and the environment, and uniquely to do so across the entire life cycle of nanomaterials and in a wide range of target species. Identification of critical properties (physico-chemical descriptors) that confer the ability to induce harm in biological systems is key to allowing these features to be avoided in nanomaterial production (safety by design). Major shortfalls in the risk analysis process for nanomaterials are the fundamental lack of data on exposure levels and the environmental fate and transformation of nanomaterials, key issues that this proposal will address, including through the development of novel modelling approaches. A major deliverable of the project will be a framework for classification of nanomaterials according to their impacts, whether biological or environmental, by linking nanomaterial-biomolecule interactions across scales (sub-cellular to ecosystem) and establishing the specific biochemical mechanisms of interference (toxicity pathway).


Patent
Immunolight Llc and Duke University | Date: 2016-02-17

Products, compositions, systems, and methods for modifying a target structure which mediates or is associated with a biological activity, including treatment of conditions, disorders, or diseases mediated by or associated with a target structure, such as a virus, cell, subcellular structure or extracellular structure. The methods may be performed in situ in a non-invasive manner by placing a nanoparticle having a metallic shell on at least a fraction of a surface in a vicinity of a target structure in a subject and applying an initiation energy to a subject thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure directly or via a modulation agent. The nanoparticle is configured, upon exposure to a first wavelength _(1), to generate a second wavelength _(2 )of radiation having a higher energy than the first wavelength _(1). The methods may further be performed by application of an initiation energy to a subject in situ to activate a pharmaceutical agent directly or via an energy modulation agent, optionally in the presence of one or more plasmonics active agents, thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure. Kits containing products or compositions formulated or configured and systems for use in practicing these methods.


Methods and systems for producing a change in a medium. A first method and system (1) place in a vicinity of the medium at least one upconverter including a gas for plasma ignition, with the upconverter being configured, upon exposure to initiation energy, to generate light for emission into the medium, and (2) apply the initiation energy from an energy source including the first wavelength _(1 )to the medium, wherein the emitted light directly or indirectly produces the change in the medium. A second method and system (1) place in a vicinity of the medium an agent receptive to microwave radiation or radiofrequency radiation, and (2) apply as an initiation energy the microwave radiation or radiofrequency radiation by which the agent directly or indirectly generates emitted light in the infrared, visible, or ultraviolet range to produce at least one of physical and biological changes in the medium.


Methods for the treatment of a cell proliferation disease or disorder in a subject, involving applying a psoralen derivative lacking a DNA cross-linking motif to cancer cells, applying a psoralen or a derivative thereof and lapatinib, or applying a psoralen or derivative thereof and neratinib, to a subject and further applying initiation radiation energy form an energy source.


Patent
Duke University and Immunolight Llc. | Date: 2014-01-27

A method and a system for producing a change in a medium disposed in an artificial container. The method places in a vicinity of the medium at least one of a plasmonics agent and an energy modulation agent. The method applies an initiation energy through the artificial container to the medium. The initiation energy interacts with the plasmonics agent or the energy modulation agent to directly or indirectly produce the change in the medium. The system includes an initiation energy source configured to apply an initiation energy to the medium to activate the plasmonics agent or the energy modulation agent.


Patent
Immunolight LLC. and Duke University | Date: 2014-03-26

A method and a system for producing a change in a medium disposed in an artificial container. The method places in a vicinity of the medium at least one of a plasmonics agent and an energy modulation agent. The method applies an initiation energy through the artificial container to the medium. The initiation energy interacts with the plasmonics agent or the energy modulation agent to directly or indirectly produce the change in the medium. The system includes an initiation energy source configured to apply an initiation energy to the medium to activate the plasmonics agent or the energy modulation agent.


Patent
National University of Singapore and Duke University | Date: 2013-03-15

The present invention provides methods of determining whether a subject has a Dengue virus infection that is likely to develop into a life-threatening Dengue disease and methods of selecting a treatment regimen for a subject in need thereof who has been infected with a Dengue virus. The invention further provides a prognostic kit for distinguishing a subject who is likely to develop a mild Dengue disease from a subject who is likely to develop a life-threatening Dengue disease. The methods and kits of the invention can be used to differentiate DHF from DF and severe and non-severe forms of Dengue with high sensitivity and specificity.


Patent
Duke University and Immunolight Llc | Date: 2014-01-30

Products, compositions, systems, and methods for modifying a target structure. The methods may be performed in a non-invasive manner by placing a nanoparticle having a metallic shell on at least a fraction of a surface in a vicinity of a target structure in a subject and applying an initiation energy thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure directly or via a modulation agent. The nanoparticle is configured, upon exposure to a first wavelength _(1), to generate a second wavelength _(2 )of radiation having a higher energy than the first wavelength _(1). The methods may further be performed by application of an initiation energy to activate a photoactivatable agent directly or via an energy modulation agent, optionally in the presence of one or more plasmonics active agents, thus producing an effect on or change to the target structure. Kits containing products or compositions formulated or configured and systems for use in practicing these methods.


Patent
Immunolight LLC and Duke University | Date: 2014-04-18

The present invention relates to methods for treating cell proliferation disorders comprising (1) administering to the subject at least one activatable pharmaceutical agent that is capable of activation by a simultaneous two photon absorption event and of effecting a predetermined cellular change when activated, (2) administering at least one plasmonics-active agent to the subject, and (3) applying an initiation energy from an initiation energy source to the subject, wherein the plasmonics-active agent enhances or modifies the applied initiation energy, such that the enhanced or modified initiation energy activates the activatable pharmaceutical agent by the simultaneous two photon absorption event in situ, thus causing the predetermined cellular change to occur, wherein said predetermined cellular change treats the cell proliferation related disorder, and the use of plasmonics enhanced photospectral therapy (PEPST) and exiton-plasmon enhanced phototherapy (EPEP) in the treatment of various cell proliferation disorders, and the PEPST and EPEP agents and probes


The use of plasmonics enhanced photospectral therapy (PEPST) and exiton-plasmon enhanced phototherapy (EPEP) in the treatment of various cell proliferation disorders, and the PEPST and EPEP agents and probes used therein.


Patent
Duke University and Immunolight Llc. | Date: 2014-04-04

A method and a system for producing a change in a medium disposed in an artificial container. The method places in a vicinity of the medium at least one of a plasmonics agent and an energy modulation agent. The method applies an initiation energy through the artificial container to the medium. The initiation energy interacts with the plasmonics agent or the energy modulation agent to directly or indirectly produce the change in the medium. The system includes an initiation energy source configured to apply an initiation energy to the medium to activate the plasmonics agent or the energy modulation agent.


Patent
Immunolight Llc. and Duke University | Date: 2015-09-11

A method and a system for producing a change in a medium disposed in an artificial container. The method places in a vicinity of the medium at least one of a plasmonics agent and an energy modulation agent. The method applies an initiation energy through the artificial container to the medium. The initiation energy interacts with the plasmonics agent or the energy modulation agent to directly or indirectly produce the change in the medium. The system includes an initiation energy source configured to apply an initiation energy to the medium to activate the plasmonics agent or the energy modulation agent.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 296.35K | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Continuous biochemical monitoring has the power to change currently accepted standards of care shifting the emphasis from treating illness to maintaining health Point in time snapshots of a patientandapos s health can miss critical fluctuations or early warning signs that might warrant early interventions or changes in disease treatment and management PROFUSAandapos s sensor platform has the promise to transform healthcare by providing real time data to physicians and patients without requiring blood samples cumbersome equipment or doctor visits The goal of this Fast Track STTR is to apply PROFUSAandapos s injectable microsensors for monitoring tissue health in peripheral artery disease PAD Continuous oxygen monitoring will be useful in the treatment and management of a variety of diseases such as asthma COPD sleep apnea compartment syndrome transplant surgery and PAD PAD is a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that affects million people in the U S with prevalence increasing with age PAD ranges from mild accompanied by intermittent claudication or pain with exercise to severe accompanied by critical limb ischemia and gangrene and is associated with high rates of amputation mortality and poor quality of life With the appropriate treatment and monitoring disease progression can be halted and even reversed PROFUSAandapos s long term tissue monitors can be used to continuously monitor tissue oxygen levels and temperature in PAD patients during their daily activities and thus provide timely indications of changes in disease state e g restenosis In recently completed landmark studies PROFUSAandapos s prototype oxygen sensors were shown to function months in healthy rats and months in large healthy mammals In this Fast Track STTR we propose to demonstrate sensor functionality in PAD animal models rats in Phase I and pigs in Phase II Changes in tissue oxygen in the animalsandapos healthy and ischemic legs will be monitored before during and after induction of PAD out to days a time period relevant to chronic wound healing thrombolytic drug therapy optimization and monitoring for restenosis to avoid re intervention and amputation Phase II will also involve miniaturization of PROFUSAandapos s custom optical reader system to improve the form factor for in vivo use In addition to the strong scientific and pre clinical team medical clinical regulatory and business personnel will be an integral part of this project to provide early strategy for successful product development The proposed studies will provide valuable data for advancing PROFUSA towards clinical studies of PAD monitoring and significant investor funding to enable commercialization for widespread clinical application PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Peripheral artery disease PAD in which plaque buildup obstructs arteries leading to decreased tissue oxygen levels is estimated to affect to million people in the U S creating an economic burden of more than $ B annually Decreased tissue oxygen can lead to intermittent claudication or in more advanced cases gangrene and amputation PROFUSAandapos s continuous oxygen sensing technology can help to salvage limbs from amputation by providing a way to measure real time tissue oxygen levels in the ischemic limb before during and after treatment


Methods for the treatment of a cell proliferation disease or disorder in a subject, involving applying a psoralen derivative lacking a DNA cross-linking motif to cancer cells, applying a psoralen or a derivative thereof and lapatinib, or applying a psoralen or derivative thereof and neratinib, to a subject and further applying initiation radiation energy form an energy source.


Mascola J.R.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Montefiori D.C.,Duke University
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2010

Licensed vaccines against viral diseases generate antibodies that neutralize the infecting virus and protect against infection or disease. Similarly, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 will likely need to induce antibodies that prevent initial infection of host cells or that limit early events of viral dissemination. Such antibodies must target the surface envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1, which are highly variable in sequence and structure. The first subunit vaccines to enter clinical trails were safe and immunogenic but unable to elicit antibodies that neutralized most circulating strains of HIV-1. However, potent virus neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) can develop during the course of HIV-1 infection, and this is the type of antibody response that researchers seek to generate with a vaccine. Thus, current vaccine design efforts have focused on a more detailed understanding of these broadly neutralizing antibodies and their epitopes to inform the design of improved vaccines. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Verheugt F.W.A.,Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis | Granger C.B.,Duke University
The Lancet | Year: 2015

In patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists reduces the risk of stroke by more than 60%. But vitamin K antagonists have limitations, including causing serious bleeding such as intracranial haemorrhage and the need for anticoagulation monitoring. In part related to these limitations, they are used in only about half of patients who should be treated according to guideline recommendations. In the past decade, oral agents have been developed that directly block the activity of thrombin (factor IIa), as well as drugs that directly inhibit activated factor X (Xa), which is the first protein in the final common pathway to the activation of thrombin. These novel non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been shown to be at least as good as warfarin for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and they have proved to have better safety profiles. Their net advantage is underscored by significantly lower all-cause mortality compared with warfarin in large clinical trials. Because of these features and their ease of use, they are recommended for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. They have also a fast onset and offset of action, but they currently lack specific antidotes. This paper addresses the role of anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation in the era of NOACs, with a focus on special situations including management in the event of bleeding and around the time of procedures including cardioversion, catheter ablation, and device implantation. Also their use in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease, with advanced age, with chronic kidney disease, or with valvular heart disease will be discussed as well as the interaction of NOACs with other cardiac medication, and switching between anticoagulants. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Patent
University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign and Duke University | Date: 2014-09-25

The present disclosure provides tetra-substituted cyclobutane inhibitors of Androgen Receptor Action, and methods of using such inhibitors, for the treatment of hormone-refractory cancers.


Patent
Duke University and BioSpecifics Technologies Corporation | Date: 2014-03-14

The invention relates to compositions and methods for treating uterine fibroids, wherein a uterine fibroid treatment agent comprising collagenase in an amount effective to cause shrinkage of uterine fibroids is injected or inserted into the uterine fibroid.


Patent
Foundation University, Duke University and Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology | Date: 2015-10-19

The instant invention describes macrocyclic compounds having therapeutic activity, and methods of treating disorders such as methods of modulating bone processes, and methods of treating bone-related disease, disorders, and symptoms thereof.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 279.64K | Year: 2013

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Medical drugs and devices are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based on data from multicenter clinical trials. In 2010, U.S. spending on clinical trials was approximately 25 billion. Over the past decade the efficiency of clinical trials has been improved by electronic data capture (EDC) systems, whose use has increased from 38% to 61% from 2006 to 2011. While medical imaging plays an important role in clinical trials, often serving as the basisfor study end-points and/or safety evaluations, few f any EDC systems integrate imaging corelab workflows such as image quality assurance, site queries, and reporting of end-point analyses. Heart Imaging Technologies (Heart IT) developed the world's firstzero footprint medical image viewer, WebPAX, which displays diagnostic-quality images in a bare bones web browser. Recently, several leading vendors of EDC systems have invited HeartIT to enter into partnerships to integrate WebPAX image uploading and viewing into their EDC products. In this project we propose to create a cloud-based imaging corelab of the future that provides support for all imaging corelab activities. We propose that by moving imaging corelabs out of their traditional brick-and-mortar environments and into the cloud , medical images can be interpreted from anywhere in the world within minutes rather than weeks. Moving corelabs to the cloud will not only improve corelab workflows, but will also improve communication between the corelab and the other clinical trials stakeholders such as the CRO, the data safety and monitoring board (DSMB), the sponsor, and the FDA. In addition, making images available rapidly will enable new trial designs that reduce site-to-site variability of thestudy population, thereby reducing the number of patients needed to detect treatment effects, trial durations, and trial costs. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Medical drugs and devices are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) based on data from multicenter clinical trials. Over the past decade the efficiency of clinical trials has been improved by electronic data capture (EDC) systems. While medical imaging plays an important role in clinical trials, often serving as the basis for study end-points and/or safety evaluations, few if any EDC systems integrate imaging corelab workflows. We propose to create a cloud-based imaging corelab of the future , where medical images can be interpreted from anywhere in theworld, resulting in reduced patient safety risks, shorter trial durations, and lower costs.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Training Grant | Award Amount: 4.26M | Year: 2014

The Oxford-Warwick Statistics Programme will train a new cohort of at least 50 graduates in the theory, methods and applications of Statistical Science for 21st Century data-intensive environments and large-scale models. This is joint project lead by the Statistics Departments of Oxford and Warwick. These two departments, ranked first and second for world leading research in the last UK research assessment exercise, can provide a wonderful stimulating training environment for doctoral students in statistics. The Centres pool of supervisors are known for significant international research contributions in modern computational statistics and related fields, contributions recognised by over 20 major National and International Awards since 2008. Oxford and Warwick attract students with competitively won international scholarships. The programme leaders expect to expand the cohort to 11 or 12 per year by bringing these students into the CDT, and raising their funding up to CDT-level using £188K in support from industry and £150K support from donors. The need to engage in large-scale highly structured statistical models has been recognized for some time within areas like genomics and brain-imaging technologies. However, the UKs leading industries and sciences are now also increasingly aware of the enormous potential that data-driven analysis holds. These industries include the engineering, manufacturing, pharmaceutical, financial, e-commerce, life-science and entertainment sectors. The analysis bottleneck has moved from being able to collect and record relevant data to being able to interpret and exploit vast data collections. These and other businesses are critically dependent on the availability of future leaders in Statistics, able to design and develop statistical approaches that are scalable to massive data. The UK can take a world lead in this field, being a recognized international leader in Statistics; and OxWaSP is ideally placed to realize the potential this opportunity. The Centre is focused on a new type of training for a new type of graduate statistician in statistical methodology and computation that is scalable to big data. We will bring a new focus on training for research, by teaching directly from the scientific literature. Students will be thrown straight into reading and summarizing journal papers. Lecture-format contact is used sparingly with peer-to-peer learning central to the training approach. This is teaching and learning for research by doing research. Cohort learning will be enhanced via group visits to companies, small groups reproducing results from key papers, student-orientated paper discussions, annual workshops and a three-day off-site retreat. From the second year the students will join their chosen supervisors in Warwick and Oxford, five in each Centre coming together regularly for research group meetings that overlap Oxford and Warwick, for workshops and retreats, and teaching and mentoring of students in earlier years. The Centre is timely and ambitious, designed to attract and nurture the brightest graduate statisticians, broadening their skills to meet the new challenge and allowing them to flourish in a focused, communal, research-training environment. The strategic vision is to train the next generation of statisticians who will enable the new data-intensive sciences and industries. The Centre will offer a vehicle to bring together industrial partners from across the two departments to share ideas and provide an important perspective to our students on the research challenges and opportunities within commercial and social enterprises. Students training will be considerably enhanced through the Centres visits, lectures, internships and co-supervision from global partners including Amazon, Google, GlaxoSmithKline, MAN and Novartis, as well as smaller entrepreneurial start-ups Deepmind and Optimor.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.99K | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: It is proposed to demonstrate a surface fabricated using thin film metamaterial designs that can exhibit rapidly varying angular as well as spectral emissivity profiles. The technology enables specification of desired angular pattern at design time, and can be fabricated in large area formats. BENEFIT: The proposed technology will allow directional control of thermal radiation in applications where omnidirectional thermal radiation patterns are not desirable. This will benefit thermal management challenges of military and civilian satellites. It can also serve to enhance performance of thermal energy conversion technology.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 99.53K | Year: 2015

Suppose that you are sitting alone at a table in a crowded restaurant where you can hear a mixture of several conversations. This mixed sound is not particularly interesting, but suppose you could record it and then use some sort of algorithm to extract the individual conversations that were going on in the restaurant, that would certainly be much more informative. In statistical jargon this is called a mixture model, and there is a surprisingly large number of real-life situations where they are very useful. As a motivating application we consider an important biomedical problem called alternative splicing. Although all humans have the same genes encoded in our DNA, it turns out that each of our genes can be expressed in several variations (called splicing variants), and that each of these variations performs different functions in the organism; some may even help cause complex neurodegenerative diseases or cancer. Fortunately, technologies from recent years produce data that allow us for the first time to study this phenomenon in detail. We can now observe the overall expression of the gene from which, similar to the restaurant example, we would like to learn what are the individual contributions of each gene variant (indeed, to learn whether a given variant was even present at all). These technologies are becoming cheaper every year, and one can easily envision a nearby future where they are part of our regular medical check-ups, but solving this mixture problem poses formidable methodological and practical challenges. For instance, the number of possible solutions even when considering a single gene is larger than the number of atoms in the universe, and the required calculations can be prohibitive even on the latest computers. This example highlights some of the most important challenges that are common to many modern applications of mixture models, hence solving them would have positive implications in a much wider range of areas (e.g. technology, industry, public policy, social sciences). In this project we aim to develop a framework that can be used to solve the alternative splicing and other challenging mixture model problems. Our first goal is to propose a novel formulation for general mixture models that has proven highly successful in other complex settings, studying both theoretical and practical aspects. In our example this formulation says that, when identifying different conversations in the restaurant, we cannot have two tables uttering exactly the same words (else these should be regarded as a single conversation). This apparently simple consideration turns out to have important mathematical consequences that greatly simplify the problem. Our second goal is to apply these general principles to solve the alternative splicing problem, where we will also bring to bear scientific considerations to ensure that the solution is useful in practice. Our third goal is to propose and study strategies to make fast and accurate calculations, which can quickly become prohibitive, so that a computer can find the solution in reasonable time. As part of this project we will provide open-source software that others can use freely for their own research or applied data analysis. Given the technical challenges involved the bulk of the research will be carried at the Dept. of Statistics at the University of Warwick by the PI working with other members of the department and several further statistical and biomedical collaborators from prestigious overseas universities and hospitals who will be actively involved in the project, e.g. helping translate our methodology to biomedical research and clinical practice, or ensuring that our statistical predictions are indeed accurate.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.48M | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Medical drugs and devices are regulated by the U S Food and Drug Administration FDA based on data from multicenter clinical trials In U S spending on clinical trials was approximately $ billion Over the past decade the efficiency of clinical trials has been improved by electronic data capture EDC systems whose use has increased from to from to While medical imaging plays an important role in clinical trials often serving as the basis for study end points and or safety evaluations few f any EDC systems integrate imaging corelab workflows such as image quality assurance site queries and reporting of end point analyses Heart Imaging Technologies Heart IT developed the worldandapos s first andquot zero footprintandquot medical image viewer WebPAX which displays diagnostic quality images in a bare bones web browser Recently several leading vendors of EDC systems have invited HeartIT to enter into partnerships to integrate WebPAX image uploading and viewing into their EDC products In this project we propose to create a andquot cloud based imaging corelab of the futureandquot that provides support for all imaging corelab activities We propose that by moving imaging corelabs out of their traditional andquot brick and mortarandquot environments and into the andquot cloudandquot medical images can be interpreted from anywhere in the world within minutes rather than weeks Moving corelabs to andquot the cloudandquot will not only improve corelab workflows but will also improve communication between the corelab and the other clinical trials stakeholders such as the CRO the data safety and monitoring board DSMB the sponsor and the FDA In addition making images available rapidly will enable new trial designs that reduce site to site variability of the study population thereby reducing the number of patients needed to detect treatment effects trial durations and trial costs PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Medical drugs and devices are regulated by the U S Food and Drug Administration FDA based on data from multicenter clinical trials Over the past decade the efficiency of clinical trials has been improved by electronic data capture EDC systems While medical imaging plays an important role in clinical trials often serving as the basis for study end points and or safety evaluations few if any EDC systems integrate imaging corelab workflows We propose to create a andquot cloud based imaging corelab of the futureandquot where medical images can be interpreted from anywhere in the world resulting in reduced patient safety risks shorter trial durations and lower costs


Mascola J.R.,National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases | Haynes B.F.,Duke University
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2013

The development of an effective vaccine has been hindered by the enormous diversity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and its ability to escape a myriad of host immune responses. In addition, conserved vulnerable regions on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein are often poorly immunogenic and elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses (BNAbs) in a minority of HIV-1-infected individuals and only after several years of infection. All of the known BNAbs demonstrate high levels of somatic mutations and often display other unusual traits, such as a long heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDRH3) and autoreactivity that can be limited by host tolerance controls. Nonetheless, the demonstration that HIV-1-infected individuals can make potent BNAbs is encouraging, and recent progress in isolating such antibodies and mapping their immune pathways of development is providing new strategies for vaccination. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S 254 1 July 2013 10.1111/imr.12075 Invited Review Invited Reviews Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA..


Patent
Duke University and BIOSPECIFICS TECHNOLOGIES Corporation | Date: 2014-03-14

The invention relates to compositions and methods for treating uterine fibroids, wherein a uterine fibroid treatment agent comprising collagenase in an amount effective to cause shrinkage of uterine fibroids is injected or inserted into the uterine fibroid.


Patent
BioSpecifics Technologies Corporation and Duke University | Date: 2016-06-22

The invention relates to compositions and methods for treating uterine fibroids, wherein a uterine fibroid treatment agent comprising collagenase in an amount effective to cause shrinkage of uterine fibroids is injected or inserted into the uterine fibroid.


Morrisey E.E.,University of Pennsylvania | Hogan B.L.M.,Duke University
Developmental Cell | Year: 2010

The mammalian respiratory system-the trachea and the lungs-arises from the anterior foregut through a sequence of morphogenetic events involving reciprocal endodermal-mesodermal interactions. The lung itself consists of two highly branched, tree-like systems-the airways and the vasculature-that develop in a coordinated way from the primary bud stage to the generation of millions of alveolar gas exchange units. We are beginning to understand some of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie critical processes such as branching morphogenesis, vascular development, and the differentiation of multipotent progenitor populations. Nevertheless, many gaps remain in our knowledge, the filling of which is essential for understanding respiratory disorders, congenital defects in human neonates, and how the disruption of morphogenetic programs early in lung development can lead to deficiencies that persist throughout life. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: National Science Foundation | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 225.00K | Year: 2014

The broader impacts/commercial potential of this Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase I can be found across the semiconductor industry with a very large first market in wireless communications. Due to their extraordinary properties, more specifically, the linearity of these devices, the technologies can find applications in low noise amplifiers, mixers, and power amplifiers in wireless systems by replacing the transistors used in these parts. Such a wireless market is estimated to be ten(s) billion dollars by 2020 driven by mobile data. The high performance of the devices will also lead to radically change of the current cost-performance paradigm allowing for billions of dollars of savings in base stations for current service levels and likely accelerating the displacement of wireline networks. As the technology matures, it will displace most if not all moderate bandgap materials used in today's technology. This Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Phase I project will develop electronic devices for radio frequency (RF) application using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The demanding for high speed wireless communication requires electronic devices with high linearity. RF devices made of silicon and compound semiconductors, such as gallium arsenide, have to sacrifice power efficiency in order to reach certain linearity specification. CNT is a one dimensional material with diameter in nanometer range. It has far superior properties ranging from mobility to current carrying capability to thermal stability. Calculations show CNT amplifiers will be inherently linear with noise suppressed to the lowest possible quantum limit. These properties allow for electronic devices that will performance better than the existing technologies with high speed, low noise, and most importantly, high linearity. With improved linearity, higher data rate and higher power efficiency (longer battery time of the mobile device) can be achieved. As importantly, the cost for making such devices will be dramatically lower because of the simple method for material synthesis and device fabrication and the material's properties allow for older, cheaper fabrication processes to be retained.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.2.1-4 | Award Amount: 15.40M | Year: 2013

Epilepsy is a major burden for patients and health systems worldwide. It is a common chronic neurological disorder affecting people of all ages, and the shortfall in existing treatments means that 30% of patients continue to suffer uncontrolled seizures. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a recently-discovered, network-level layer of gene expression regulation that controls protein levels of entire signaling pathways. Research on miRNAs has unprecedented potential to (i) further our understanding of the underlying disease processes, (ii) deliver novel signatures and prognostic markers for response to therapy, and (iii) deliver novel therapeutics and drug targets. EpiMiRNA consortium members have pioneered discoveries on brain-specific miRNAs, established that miRNA changes are a feature of the pathophysiology of human temporal lobe epilepsy and have demonstrated experimentally that altering miRNA function can potently suppress epileptic seizures and seizure-damage. EpiMiRNA brings together experts on the neurobiology of miRNAs with the leading researchers working on miRNAs in epilepsy, epilepsy geneticists, leaders in miRNA-target detection, proteomics, and systems biology with research-intensive SMEs pursuing miRNA therapeutics and treatments for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Through highly collaborative, inter-disciplinary and inter-sectorial research, EpiMiRNA will explain the mechanism by which miRNAs contribute to epileptogenesis, characterize genetic variation of miRNA in patients, evaluate seizure-suppressing effects of miRNAs in experimental models, identify novel miRNA modulatory molecules as potential future therapeutics, and develop miRNAs as prognostic markers to identify patients who respond to novel, non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions including brain stimulation. EpiMiRNA will generate the necessary critical mass in biomedical, clinical and industry/SME research to track, treat and prevent seizures and improve the clinical management of epilepsy patients.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2012-3.3. | Award Amount: 971.97K | Year: 2012

Data as infrastructure is a critical concept for a fully-integrated European Research Area (ERA) to drive innovation forward as envisaged by the Digital Agenda for Europe. The lack of data availability hinders this vision. In academic publishing, peer review and citation have long been recognised as mechanisms for endorsing the trustworthiness of research outputs and incentivizing researchers to contribute. Trustworthy research data will only be widely available if the same principles are applied. Key, participative, initiatives have emerged to address this challenge.\n\nThe DataCite consortium has assigned over 1m DOI names in the last few years to make research data citable, true to emergence of the 4th paradigm, Jim Grays vision of data-intensive scientific discovery\n\nORCID offers the opportunity to identify individual authors across systems and infrastructures, including scholarly works that can have up to thousands of authors (as in the case of the LHC project). Researchers often change their affiliation, and collaborate across national disciplinary boundaries.\n\nODIN aims to build on the success of DataCite and ORCID by designing an awareness layer for persistent author and object identifiers, thereby reducing technical, cultural and logistical barriers to the accessibility, attribution and trust of data. Identifier awareness will make it possible to stabilise: References to a data object; Tracking of use and re-use; Links between a data object, subsets, articles, rights statements and every person involved in its life-cycle (creator, editor, reviewer, aggregator, etc.).\n\nGiven the importance of these functions as we approach HORIZON2020, we aim to prove the feasibility of author, data and rights identification, promote trust building towards open scientific data e-Infrastructures and lay the foundation necessary to promote future interoperability (technical, semantic, reference architecture, etc.) in the scientific data domain in Europe and globally.


Chen S.H.,Duke University | Chan N.-L.,National Taiwan University | Hsieh T.-S.,Duke University | Hsieh T.-S.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2013

DNA topoisomerases are nature's tools for resolving the unique problems of DNA entanglement that occur owing to unwinding and rewinding of the DNA helix during replication, transcription, recombination, repair, and chromatin remodeling. These enzymes perform topological transformations by providing a transient DNA break, formed by a covalent adduct with the enzyme, through which strand passage can occur. The active site tyrosine is responsible for initiating two transesterifications to cleave and then religate the DNA backbone. The cleavage reaction intermediate is exploited by cytotoxic agents, which have important applications as antibiotics and anticancer drugs. The reactions mediated by these enzymes can also be regulated by their binding partners; one example is a DNA helicase capable of modulating the directionality of strand passage, enabling important functions like reannealing denatured DNA and resolving recombination intermediates. In this review, we cover recent advances in mechanistic insights into topoisomerases and their various cellular functions. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Patent
Ricoh Company and Duke University | Date: 2013-09-11

A method and apparatus is disclosed herein for measuring radio-frequency energy. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises one or more antennas, a wideband radio frequency detector (e.g., a logarithmic amplifier (LogAmp)) coupled to the one or more antennas to measure ambient RF energy, wherein the wideband radio frequency detector has an analog output indicative of RF input power received by the one or more antennas, and an analog-to-digital converter coupled to the wideband radio frequency detector to convert the analog output to a digital value, the digital value being applied to a calibration function, to provide a number representing RF energy.


Patent
Ricoh Company and Duke University | Date: 2013-10-09

A method, system and tag for low power radio frequency communication are described. In one embodiment, the RF tag comprises: a radio, an energy harvesting unit operable to convert incident RF energy to direct current (DC), a storage unit to store recovered DC power, one or more sensors for sensing and logging data, and a microcontroller coupled to the energy harvesting and storage units, the one or more sensors and the radio, the microcontroller operable to wake up from a sleep state and cause the radio to communicate, sensed data from at least one of the one or more sensors while powered by energy previously harvested and stored by the energy harvesting and storage unit.


Patent
Duke University, Los Alamos National Security LLC, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Date: 2015-04-17

The disclosure relates to nucleic acids mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.


Patent
Duke University, Los Alamos National Security Llc, University of Alabama at Birmingham and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Date: 2015-04-17

The disclosure generally relates to an immunogenic composition (e.g., a vaccine) and, in particular, to a polyvalent immunogenic composition, such as a polyvalent HIV vaccine, and to methods of using same.


Patent
Aeolus Inc., National Jewish Health and Duke University | Date: 2014-12-18

The present invention relates, in general, to a method of modulating physiological and pathological processes and, in particular, to a method of modulating cellular levels of oxidants and thereby processes in which such oxidants are a participant. The invention also relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMP-30-2015 | Award Amount: 9.83M | Year: 2016

The objective of the caLIBRAte project is to establish a state-of-the-art versatile Risk Governance framework for assessment and management of human and environmental risks of MN and MN-enabled products. The framework will be a web-based system-of-systems linking different models and methods for: 1) screening of apparent and perceived risks and trends in nanotechnology, 2) control banding, qualitative and fully integrated predictive quantitative risk assessment operational at different information levels, 3) safety-by-design and multi-criteria decision support methods, 4) risk surveillance, -management and -guidance documents. The risk management framework will support assessments of emerging and existing MN and MN-enabled products following the recent ISO31000 risk governance framework, as well as safety in innovation by matching models to the principle innovation steps in the Cooper Stage-Gate product innovation model Control banding tools and quantitative models will be subject to sensitivity analysis and performance testing followed by a revision as needed. After revision the models will again be analyzed by sensitivity testing, calibration, performance tested to establish the uncertainties. After calibration, the models will be part of the framework, which will be demonstrated by case studies. Stakeholders will be involved for defining the user requirements of the framework and will receive training in the framework at the end. The caLIBRAte project proposal answers to the call of NMP30-2015: Next generation tools for risk governance of MNs. The project is specifically designed to address the key challenges defined in the scope of the call text. There is particular focus on model revision, calibration and demonstration of existing models and methods that support the risk governance framework in regards to safe innovation and already implemented nanomaterials. Next generation computational exposure assessment and -toxicology is anticipated in the framework


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.4.2-2;HEALTH.2011.2.4.3-3 | Award Amount: 7.93M | Year: 2011

Physical activity is a powerful lifestyle factor that on average reduces risk for development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, we have demonstrated that following supervised endurance exercise training, 20% of subjects show no change in fitness and 30% demonstrate no improvement in insulin sensitivity or worse-still an adverse response. Our concept is that by using molecular profiling of blood/muscle samples we will develop personalised lifestyle intervention tools. Further, revealing the biological basis for a variable metabolic or cardiovascular response to exercise will enable us to propose new targets and biomarkers for drug discovery efforts directly in humans. Using our established OMICS approaches (RNA, DNA and Metabo-) we will generate classifiers that predict the responses to exercise-therapy (fitness and insulin sensitivity). Classifier generation is a statistical strategy for diagnosis or prognosis. Critically, we have a large human tissue biobank, including subjects with insulin-resistance; young to elderly males and females, as well as twins. Our SME partners have significant intellectual property and capacity in the field of bio-prediction, with a proven track-record of collaboration with the team and product development. We will add to the diversity of our biobank by carrying-out an exercise intervention study using a novel time-efficient strategy that we have recently proven to be effective in reducing insulin resistance in sedentary young people and in middle aged obese subjects. A time-efficient protocol is a critical as lack-of-time is a key reason for not maintaining physical activity levels. Finally, we have a novel out-bred rodent model that replicates high and low exercise training responses and we will establish its suitability for future drug screening purposes. Because of these substantial pre-existing resources we believe that our project has a very high probability of delivering on its goals of improving the healthcare of European citizens


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 750.00K | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: The objective of this STTR Phase II project is to demonstrate that resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) is a commercially-viable technology for the deposition of hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric, gradient refractive index, anti-reflection (GRIN-ARTM) coatings on both rigid and flexible substrates. Description of Effort: Based on the feasibility research conducted during Phase I, Phase II will focus on optimizing the optical properties of GRIN-ARTM coatings deposited by RIR-MAPLE, optimizing the synthesis of hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric materials, enabling GRIN-ARTM coating deposition on flexible substrates, and translating optimized processes to commercial-scale production. The performance goal for the proposed work is to demonstrate a durable GRIN-ARTM coating on a flexible substrate with reflection<0.5% over the visible wavelength range (400-750nm) for wide angles of incidence. BENEFIT: The precise control of RIR-MAPLE film deposition is an important benefit and perfectly suited for GRIN-ARTM coatings due to the capability of discrete deposition of hybrid nanocomposites with variable composition. The synthesis of custom hybrid organic/inorganic polymeric materials is a second benefit that enables both refractive index control and improved durability. The successful demonstration of the proposed conformal hybrid organic/inorganic GRIN-ARTM structure deposited using RIR-MAPLE will enable environmentally durable, UV-protected, anti-reflection coatings for military and commercial applications such as wearable electronics, protective eye wear, and energy efficient light weight solar control coatings. These applications are consistent with the mission of ZT Solar Inc., which is to commercialize optical coating materials and processes to provide cost effective anti-reflection coatings.


Jinks-Robertson S.,Duke University | Bhagwat A.S.,Wayne State University
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2014

Transcription requires unwinding complementary DNA strands, generating torsional stress, and sensitizing the exposed single strands to chemical reactions and endogenous damaging agents. In addition, transcription can occur concomitantly with the other major DNA metabolic processes (replication, repair, and recombination), creating opportunities for either cooperation or conflict. Genetic modifications associated with transcription are a global issue in the small genomes of microorganisms in which noncoding sequences are rare. Transcription likewise becomes significant when one considers that most of the human genome is transcriptionally active. In this review, we focus specifically on the mutagenic consequences of transcription. Mechanisms of transcription-Associated mutagenesis in microorganisms are discussed, as is the role of transcription in somatic instability of the vertebrate immune system. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.94K | Year: 2015

We propose to develop a compact, integrated ion trap quantum system for quantum sensor, timekeeping, and processing applications. To do so, we leverage ColdQuantas expertise in miniature ultra-high vacuum (UHV) and atom chip technology and Duke Universitys expertise in microfabricated surface ion traps and quantum information processing experiments. We will produce designs and implementation plans for two room-temperature systems: a surface ion trap system in ColdQuanta channel cell technology, and a macro ion trap system based on a linear blade trap. These designs will incorporate system components developed in Phase I, including resistively heated oven sources, advanced carrier chips, high density DC and RF feedthroughs, through-chip windows, materials that have been experimentally determined to be compatible with close-proximity trapped ions, and plans to establish an in situ cleaning station and procedure. In parallel, we will develop a cryogenic surface ion trap system based on a package-level vacuum enclosure within a cryostat. As part of the cryo-system development, we will develop a laser ablation atomic source and demonstrate ion trapping in the integrated system. With these Phase I objectives, our team will be prepared to present a vetted system design for development, demonstration, and commercialization in Phase II.


Patent
The University Of Texas System and Duke University | Date: 2014-12-09

The concurrent administration of chemotherapy and immunotherapy has been considered a contraindication because of the concern that the induced lymphopenia would ablate therapeutic efficacy of immunotherapy. Temozolomide has been shown to be an effective chemotherapeutic for patients with malignant gliomas and to deprive patients with glioblastoma (GBM) patients of this agent in order to treat with immunotherapy is controversial. Despite conventional dogma, we demonstrate that both chemotherapy and immunotherapy can be delivered concurrently without negating the effects of immunotherapy. In fact, the temozolomide induced lymphopenia may actually be synergistic with a peptide vaccine.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMBP-03-2016 | Award Amount: 6.22M | Year: 2017

STARCELL proposes the substitution of CRMs in thin film PV by the development and demonstration of a cost effective solution based on kesterite CZTS (Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4) materials. Kesterites are only formed by elements abundant in the earth crust with low toxicity offering a secure supply chain and minimizing recycling costs and risks, and are compatible with massive sustainable deployment of electricity production at TeraWatt levels. Optimisation of the kesterite bulk properties together with redesign and optimization of the device interfaces and the cell architecture will be developed for the achievement of a challenging increase in the device efficiency up to 18% at cell level and targeting 16% efficiency at mini-module level, in line with the efficiency targets established at the SET Plan for 2020. These efficiencies will allow initiating the transfer of kesterite based processes to pre-industrial stages. These innovations will give to STARCELL the opportunity to demonstrate CRM free thin film PV devices with manufacturing costs 0.30 /Wp, making first detailed studies on the stability and durability of the kesterite devices under accelerated test analysis conditions and developing suitable recycling processes for efficient re-use of material waste. The project will join for the first time the 3 leading research teams that have achieved the highest efficiencies for kesterite in Europe (EMPA, IMRA and IREC) together with the group of the world record holder David Mitzi (Duke University) and NREL (a reference research centre in renewable energies worldwide) in USA, and AIST (the most renewed Japanese research centre in Energy and Environment) in Japan. These groups have during the last years specialised in different aspects of the solar cell optimisation and build the forefront of kesterite research. The synergies of their joined efforts will allow raising the efficiency of kesterite solar cells and mini-modules to values never attained for this technology.

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