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Chrysostomou C.,Cardiac Intensive Care Unit | Morell V.O.,Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC | Wearden P.,Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC | Sanchez-de-Toledo J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Congenital Heart Disease | Year: 2013

Objectives. The current drug of choice for reentrant supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is adenosine followed by verapamil or diltiazem. Although limitations and significant adverse events have been encountered over the years, an alternative effective and safe agent has not been available. Dexmedetomidine has recently been shown to have potential antiarrhythmic effects, and here we describe our experience in the acute termination of reentrant SVT. Design. Retrospective case series. Setting: Quaternary University Children's Hospital, Cardiac Intensive Care Unit. Patients: Patients who received dexmedetomidine for SVT in the past 5 years. Interventions: None. Outcome Measures: SVT episodes terminated with dexmedetomidine were compared with episodes terminated with adenosine. Results. Fifteen patients, median age of 10 days (6-16), were given 27 doses of dexmedetomidine, mean dose 0.7 ± 0.3mcg/kg, for a total of 27 episodes of SVT. Successful termination occurred in 26 episodes (96%) at a median time of 30 seconds (20-35). Duration of sinus pause was 0.6 ± 0.2 seconds, there was one episode of hypotension and no bradycardia and sedation lasted for 34 ± 8 minutes. Five patients received 27 doses of adenosine, with an overall successful cardioversion in 17 patients (63%) (P= .0017). Transient bradycardia and hypotension was seen in three patients (11%), agitation in 16 patients (59%), and broncospasm in one patient. Median sinus pause was 2.5 seconds (2-9) (P < .001). Conclusions. Dexmedetomidine appears to have novel antiarrhythmic properties for the acute termination of reentrant SVT. Although adenosine is very effective, dexmedetomidine may prove to possess a more favorable therapeutic profile with increased effectiveness and fewer side effects. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Rehder K.J.,Duke Childrens Hospital
Expert review of respiratory medicine | Year: 2012

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an important rescue therapy for patients with cardiac and/or respiratory failure, with a growing body of literature supporting its use. Despite widespread use of ECMO, there remains a paucity of data on optimal management strategies for ECMO patients. Management of ECMO patients involves an understanding of the complex interaction between this technology and the critically ill patients being supported. ECMO providers typically rely on a combination of consensus guidelines and institutional experience to make management decisions. Substantial controversy continues to exist regarding many elements of ECMO management, including seemingly straightforward decisions such as the initial implementation of this technology. In addition, there are multiple providers involved in the management of ECMO patients who must be co-ordinated for this supportive therapy to be most effective. This manuscript provides an overview of current techniques for treating respiratory ECMO patients. Source

Rabinovich C.E.,Duke Childrens Hospital
Current Opinion in Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Purpose of Review: To update the current understanding of the risk factors for poor outcomes in juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis. In addition, current therapies, both traditional and biological, are reviewed. Recent Findings: Male sex, independent of age or antinuclear antibody status, is associated with increased ocular morbidity. Having anterior chamber inflammation on first exam increases the risk of developing vision-threatening eye complications. Presence of one complication increases the risk of developing another. Risk of cataract development associated with topical glucocorticoid use is better defined. Longer duration of remission on therapy has been found to decrease the risk of disease flare after discontinuation of methotrexate. Recent studies of both nonbiological and biological therapies for arthritis-related uveitis are discussed. Summary: With a better understanding of risk factors associated with the ocular morbidity of uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, aggressive therapies can be targeted for improved visual outcomes. Alternative treatments to avoid long-term corticosteroid use include the use of antimetabolites and biological therapies. More prospective comparator studies and/or use of multicenter databases are needed to better understand best treatments. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Eghtesady P.,Washington University in St. Louis | Almond C.S.D.,Boston Childrens Hospital | Tjossem C.,Berlin Heart Inc. | Epstein D.,Washington University in St. Louis | And 5 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND - Recent data suggest that Berlin Heart EXCOR Pediatric (EXCOR) ventricular assist device improves waiting list survival for pediatric heart transplant candidates. Little is known about their post-transplant outcomes. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether there was a difference in early survival for children bridged to transplant with EXCOR versus status 1A pediatric heart transplant patients not transplanted with ventricular assist device support. METHODS AND RESULTS - Pediatric heart transplant patients (n=106) bridged to transplantation with EXCOR were compared with a similarly aged cohort (n=1021) within the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) database (both cohorts from May 2007 to December 2010). In the EXCOR group, 12-month post-transplant survival (88.7%) was similar to OPTN patients listed status 1A who were not on ventricular assist device support at transplant (89.3%; P=0.85) and significantly better than 12-month survival in OPTN patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation at transplant (60.3%; P<0.001). Rejection (50%) was a significantly (P=0.005) higher cause of 12-month post-transplant mortality in the EXCOR compared with the OPTN group. Death after transplant was also higher in EXCOR patients with congenital heart disease compared with those with cardiomyopathy (26.1% versus 7.2%; P=0.02). Post-transplant survival was similar in EXCOR patients with ≥1 serious adverse event during ventricular assist device support as those without an event during support. CONCLUSIONS - The 12-month post-transplant survival with EXCOR is comparable with overall pediatric heart transplant survival and superior to survival after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Neither adverse events during support nor factors associated with mortality during support influence post-transplant survival. Rejection was a significantly greater cause of post-transplant mortality in EXCOR than in OPTN patients. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Chrysostomou C.,Penn Medicine | Schulman S.R.,Duke Childrens Hospital | Herrera Castellanos M.,Hospital Roosevelt | Cofer B.E.,Neonatology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objective To investigate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic profile of dexmedetomidine in preterm and full-term neonates ≥28 to ≤44 weeks gestational age. Study design Forty-two intubated, mechanically ventilated patients (n = 42) were grouped by gestational age into group I (n = 18), ≥28 to <36 weeks, and group II (n = 24), ≥36 to ≤44 weeks. Within each age group, there were 3 escalating dose levels, including a loading dose (LD, μg/kg) followed by a maintenance dose (MD, μg·kg -1·h-1) for 6-24 hours: level 1, 0.05 LD/MD; level 2, 0.1 LD/MD; and level 3, 0.2 LD/MD. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring sedation as determined by the Neonatal Pain, Agitation, Sedation Scale. Results During dexmedetomidine infusion, 5% of Neonatal Pain, Agitation, Sedation Scale scores were >3, indicating agitation/pain, with 4 patients (10%) requiring more sedation and 17 (40%) requiring more analgesia. Though there was significant variability in pharmacokinetic variables, group I appeared to have lower weight-adjusted plasma clearance (0.3 vs 0.9 L·h-1·kg-1) and increased elimination half-life (7.6 vs 3.2 hours) compared with group II. Fifty-six adverse events (AEs) were reported in 26 patients (62%); only 3 AEs (5%) were related to dexmedetomidine. There were no serious AEs and no AEs or hemodynamic changes requiring dexmedetomidine discontinuation. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine is effective for sedating preterm and full-term neonates and is well-tolerated without significant AEs. Preterm neonates had decreased plasma clearance and longer elimination half-life. Source

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