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Zhu K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Kakehi T.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Matsumoto M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Iwata K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine

Increased oxidative stress and activation of protein kinase C (PKC) under hyperglycemia have been implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Because reactive oxygen species derived from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, NOX1 accelerate the translocation of PKC isoforms, NOX1 is postulated to play a causative role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperglycemia was induced in wild-type and Nox1-deficient mice (KO) by two doses of streptozotocin injection. At 3 weeks after the induction of hyperglycemia, glomeruli and cortical tubules were isolated from kidneys. The mRNA level of Nox1 was significantly upregulated in the renal cortex at 3 weeks of hyperglycemia. Urinary albumin and expression of inflammatory or fibrotic mediators were similarly elevated in diabetic wild-type and KO; however, increases in glomerular volume and mesangial matrix area were attenuated in diabetic KO. Nox1 deficiency significantly reduced the levels of renal thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, membranous translocation of PKCα/β, activity of PKC, and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the diabetic kidney. Furthermore, increased staining of senescence-associated β-galactosidase in glomeruli and cortical tubules of diabetic mice was significantly suppressed in KO. Whereas the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p16INK4A and p21Cip1, were equivalent between the genotypes, increased levels of p27Kip1 and γ-H2AX, a biomarker for DNA double-strand breaks, were significantly attenuated in isolated glomeruli and cortical tubules of diabetic KO. Taken together, NOX1 modulates the p38/p27Kip1 signaling pathway by activating PKC and promotes premature senescence in early stage diabetic nephropathy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Wang Y.,Dujiangyan City Medical Center | Zhang X.,Dujiangyan City Medical Center | ling B.,Dujiangyan City Medical Center | He C.,Dujiangyan City Medical Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis

Objective: To develop a reliable and specific method for rapid prenatal diagnosis of Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Methods: We established a dual color competitive fluorescent Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to measure the gene dosage of Down syndrome critical region (DSCR), a single copy sequence in chromosome 21. Another unique single copy sequence located on chromosome 2 (USC2) but not glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was chose as reference gene. Results: The DSCR3/USC2 ratio of peripheral blood in trisomy 21 syndrome patients to normal subjects was 1.41∼1.74 to 0.93∼1.15, respectively (p < 0.01). Dual color competitive fluorescent PCR technique effectively differentiates the normal subjects from the Down syndrome patients. Next, according to the dual color competitive fluorescence quantitative PCR, among the 46 pregnant women, 3 cases were Down syndrome and 43 cases were normal, and these were confirmed by cytogenetic karyotype analysis. Conclusion: This indicated that the new technique may be a reliable and specific method for the rapid prenatal diagnosis of Trisomy 21. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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