Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Dubai, United Arab Emirates

The Dubai Pharmacy College is the first pharmacy institution in the United Arab Emirates, established in 1992 by Dubai philanthropist Haji Saeed Bin Ahmed Al Lootah. In 2005, it won the Dubai Quality Appreciation Programme award for education presented by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Crown Prince of Dubai. Wikipedia.

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Darwish H.A.,Cairo University | Abd Raboh N.R.,Ain Shams University | Mahdy A.,Dubai Pharmacy College
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a spectrum of clinical illness and morphological changes that range from fatty liver, hepatic inflammation and necrosis to progressive fibrosis. For the etiology of ALD, oxidative stress, increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis have been described. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of camel's milk (CM) in alleviating alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity as a model of clinical liver illness. Male rats were grouped into four groups from which one group received normal saline and served as control. Groups from 2 to 4 received a daily oral dose of 56% ethanol for 4. weeks. Group 2 served as untreated control while groups 3 and 4 were respectively treated with CM either in a prophylactic or a curative approach. Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, as well as cholesterol levels were estimated in the serum. Malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels along with caspase-3 activity were determined in liver tissue homogenate. A histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also achieved. Results showed amelioration of all tested parameters following administration of CM. Conclusively, treatment with camel's milk alleviates alcohol-associated hazards and protects hepatic tissue from alcohol-induced toxicity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Shehab N.G.,Cairo University | Abu-Gharbieh E.,Dubai Pharmacy College
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2014

Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt.), over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692%) followed by coumaric acid (4.251%). Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P<0.01) in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin. © 2014 Naglaa Gamil Shehab and Eman Abu-Gharbieh.

Chaudhary S.A.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Ahmedabad | Shahiwala A.F.,Dubai Pharmacy College
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2010

Importance of the field: Over the years, patient convenience and patient compliance-orientated research in the field of drug delivery has resulted in bringing out potential innovative drug delivery options. Out of which, medicated chewing gum (MCG) offers a highly convenient patient-compliant way of dosing medications, not only for special population groups with swallowing difficulties such as children and the elderly, but also for the general population, including the young generation. Areas covered in this review: In this review, various formulation ingredients, different manufacturing processes, and assessment of in vivo and in vitro drug release from MCG are thoroughly discussed along with the therapeutic potential and limitations of MCG. What the reader will gain: Readers will gain knowledge about the rationale and prominent formulation and performance evaluation strategies behind chewing gum as a drug delivery system. Take home message: The availability of directly compressible co-processed gum material enables rapid, safe and low-cost development of MCG as a drug delivery option. By MCG formulation, revitalization of old products and reformulation of new patented products is possible, to differentiate them from upcoming generics competition in the market. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Abu-Gharbieh E.,Dubai Pharmacy College | Bayoumi F.A.,Dubai Medical College | Ahmed N.G.,Dubai Pharmacy College
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2014

The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of ozonized olive oil (OZO) in 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulphuric acid (DNBS) induced colitis in rats and to elucidate the role of some antioxidant defense system (superoxide dismutase "SOD," glutathione peroxidase "GSH-Px," and catalase "CAT") in these effects. The physicochemical parameters including viscosity, peroxide, and acid values of olive oil and OZO were evaluated. The animals were divided into several groups and the colitis was induced in the rats by intracolonic instillation of DNBS at dose of 15 mg/rat. Olive oil (OO) at dose of 6 mg/kg and OZO at doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg was administered orally for 7 days, starting the day before induction of colitis. Our results showed that macroscopic and microscopic damage scores were significantly reduced in a dose response manner in rats pretreated with OZO only. In contrast, CAT, GSH-Px, and SOD activities were significantly increased in the distal colon of inflamed animals pretreated with OZO with respect to control group dose dependently. Results demonstrate that OZO pretreatment exerts protective effects in DNBS induced colitis in rats and provide evidence that the protective effects of OZO are mediated by stimulation of some antioxidant enzymes. © 2014 Eman Abu-Gharbieh et al.

Shahiwala A.,Dubai Pharmacy College
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2013

Physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight, size, partition coefficient, acid dissociation constant and solubility have a great impact on pharmacokinetics of traditional small molecule drugs and substantially used in development of small drugs. However, predicting pharmacokinetic fate (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination) of protein therapeutics from their physicochemical parameters is extremely difficult due to the macromolecular nature of therapeutic proteins and peptides. Their structural complexity and immunogenicity are other contributing factors that determine their biological fate. Therefore, to develop generalized strategies concerning development of therapeutic proteins and peptides are highly challenging. However, reviewing the literature, authors found that physiochemical properties, such as molecular weight, charge and structural modification are having great impact on pharmacokinetics of protein therapeutics and an attempt is made to provide the major findings in this manuscript. This manuscript will serve to provide some bases for developing protein therapeutics with desired pharmacokinetic profile. © 2013 Springer-Verlag France.

Sarheed O.,Ras al-Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University | Abdul Rasool B.K.,Dubai Pharmacy College
Open Biomedical Engineering Journal | Year: 2011

It has now been known for over a decade that low frequency ultrasound can be used to effectively enhance transdermal drug penetration - an approach termed sonophoresis. Mechanistically, acoustic cavitation results in the creation of defects in the stratum corneum that allow accelerated absorption of topically applied molecules. The aim of this study was to develop an optimised sonophoresis protocol for studying transdermal drug delivery in vitro. To this end, caffeine was selected as a model hydrophilic drug while porcine skin was used as a model barrier. Following acoustic validation, 20kHz ultrasound was applied for different durations (range: 5 s to 10 min) using three different modes (10%, 33% or 100% duty cycles) and two distinct sonication procedures (either before or concurrent with drug deposition). Each ultrasonic protocol was assessed in terms of its heating and caffeine flux-enhancing effects. It was found that the best regimen was a concurrent 5 min, pulsed (10% duty cycle) beam of SATA intensity 0.37 W/cm2. A key insight was that in the case of pulsed beams of 10% duty cycle, sonication concurrent with drug deposition was superior to sonication prior to drug deposition and potential mechanisms for this are discussed. © Sarheed and Abdul Rasool; Licensee Bentham Open.

Nessa F.,Dubai Pharmacy College | Ismail Z.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mohamed N.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2010

Context: Blumea balsamifera DC (Compositae) leaves have been recommended for use as a folk medicinein the treatment of various diseases related to urolithiasis in southeast Asia. Phytochemical studies of thisplant revealed it contains four classes of flavonoids (e.g., flavonols, flavones, flavanones, and dihydroflavonolderivatives).Objective: In view of the broad pharmacological activity of flavonoids, this study was carried out to determinethe xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and enzymatically produced superoxide radical scavenging activity ofdifferent organic extracts and that of the isolated flavonoids from B. balsamifera leaves.Materials and methods: The inhibitory activity of XO was assayed spectrophotometrically at 295 nm. Thesuperoxide radicals scavenging activity was assessed by NBT reduction method, spectrophotometrically at560 nm. A dose response curve was plotted for determining IC50 values.Results: The methanol extract (IC50 = 0.111 mg/mL) showed higher XO inhibitory activity than the chloroform(0.138 mg/mL) and pet-ether extracts (0.516 mg/mL). IC50 values of scavenging of superoxide radicals forextracts decreased in the order of: methanol (0.063 mg/mL) > chloroform (0.092 mg/mL) > pet-ether (0.321 mg/mL). The XO inhibitory activity of the isolated flavonoids and reference compounds tested decreased in theorder of: allopurinol > luteolin > quercetin > tamarixetin > 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone > rhamnetin > luteolin-7-methyl ether > blumeatin > dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether > dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethylether > l-ascorbic acid.Discussion and conclusion: The results indicated that the flavone derivatives were more active than the flavonolderivatives. The flavanone derivatives were moderately active and the dihydroflavonol derivatives werethe least. The higher flavonoid content of extracts contributed to their higher XO inhibitory activity. © 2010 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Al Khalidi D.,Dubai Pharmacy College | Wazaify M.,University of Jordan
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy | Year: 2013

Background The myriad changes in pharmacy practice in Jordan have transformed the pharmacist's role to be more focused on the patient and his/her therapeutic needs than on just the traditional dispensing. This, in addition to other possible factors, is believed to have influenced pharmacists' job satisfaction and stress level in different practice settings in Jordan. Objective This study aimed to determine the level of job satisfaction and job related stress among pharmacists in Amman. Moreover, the main causes of dissatisfaction and stress-related factors affecting pharmacists at their working positions were also explored. Setting The study was conducted in four pharmacy practice settings: independent and chain community pharmacies as well as private and public hospital pharmacies. Methods The study adopted the self-administered survey methodology technique using a pre-validated pre-piloted questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted from one previously used in Northern Ireland. Data were entered into SAS database and analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi square and regression analysis. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Main outcome measure The level and factors affecting job satisfaction and job related stress as reported by participating pharmacists. Results A total of 235 registered pharmacists in Amman were involved. The pharmacists' job satisfaction was significantly affected by the type of pharmacy practice settings (P = 0.038), pharmacists' registration year (P = 0.048) and marital status (P = 0.023). Moreover, job related stress situations like patient care responsibility have been associated significantly with the type of pharmacy practice settings (P = 0.043) and pharmacists' registration year (P = 0.013). Other job stressors like long working hours, lack of advancement, promotion opportunities and poor physician pharmacists' relationship have also been reported by participants. Conclusion The study concluded that community pharmacists in Amman are found to be less satisfied with their jobs than their hospital counterparts. Pharmacists' job satisfaction should be enhanced to improve pharmacists' motivation and competence. Consequently, this will improve their productivity and provision of pharmaceutical care. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Patil S.S.,Ranchi University | Shahiwala A.,Dubai Pharmacy College
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents | Year: 2014

Introduction: Oral-controlled and modified-release drug delivery systems with zero-order sustained-release kinetics have been developed and proven suitable for meeting increasingly sophisticated therapeutic needs. Nevertheless, the impact of basic chronobiology concepts on the practice of medicine is still ongoing and to address chronotherapy needs, various types of pulsatile drug delivery systems have been innovated. The purpose of this review is to highlight these innovations in the field of chronotherapy.Areas covered: The present review discusses in depth on recent patents and developments related to pulsatile drug delivery systems with eroding, soluble or rupturable barrier coatings, and systems with capsular structures. Besides focusing on all recent innovations, the review addresses the novelty and feasibility of all upcoming technologies being exploited considering pulsatile drug delivery systems.Expert opinion: There has been a growing interest in pulsatile delivery, which generally refers to the liberation of drugs following a programmable and well-defined lag phase from the time of administration. From 1981 until the present date, patent publications related to pulsatile drug delivery have shown more promising systems with numerous developments in arena of drug delivery. Future development of chronotherapeutic medications requires proper assessment and integration with other emerging disciplines such as hydrogel and transdermal delivery systems. The selection of the appropriate chronopharmaceutical technology should take into considerations with the ease of manufacturing and the cost-effectiveness. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Shahiwala A.,Dubai Pharmacy College | Dash D.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Advanced Science Letters | Year: 2010

The purpose of present study was to develop intranasal microemulsions of Zonisamide (ZNS) for direct brain drug delivery. A peceol based oil in water microemulsion (ME) with labrasol as surfactant and transcutol as cosurfactant (2:1) was developed. Phase behaviour and solubilization capacity of the ME systems were studied and were further characterized for drug content, globule size, zeta potential, viscosity, and pH. In vitro drug diffusion studies of developed ME based formulation were carried out through sheep nasal mucosa using Franz diffusion cell. The effect of mucoadhesive agent and different penetration enhancers were also evaluated in the diffusion studies. In vitro drug diffusion study revealed that the ME has significantly increased the drug diffusion across the nasal mucosa. ME containing 1% citric acid as permeation enhancer and 0.5% carbopol 934p as mucoadhesive agent further enhances drug delivery across the mucosa. The safety and efficacy of the optimized formulation is supported by histopathology study which suggests that the formulation does not impart any toxicity to the nasal mucosa. The results of the present investigation suggest that the developed ME system is a promising approach for effective intranasal delivery of ZNS which can enhance its brain delivery for successful treatment of epilepsy. © 2010 American Scientific Publishers.

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