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Schaeuble K.,University of Konstanz | Hauser M.A.,University of Konstanz | Rippl A.V.,University of Konstanz | Bruderer R.,Dualsystems Biotech | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2012

The chemokine receptor CCR7 is essential for lymphocyte and dendritic cell homing to secondary lymphoid organs. Owing to the ability to induce directional migration, CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 are pivotal for the regulation of the immune system. Here, we identify a novel function for receptor ubiquitylation in the regulation of the trafficking process of this G-protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptor. We discovered that CCR7 is ubiquitylated in a constitutive, ligand-independent manner and that receptor ubiquitylation regulates the basal trafficking of CCR7 in the absence of chemokine. Upon CCL19 binding, we show that internalized CCR7 recycles back to the plasma membrane via the trans-Golgi network. An ubiquitylation-deficient CCR7 mutant internalized normally after ligand binding, but inefficiently recycled in immune cells and was transiently retarded in the trans-Golgi network compartment of HEK293 transfectants. Finally, we demonstrate that the lack of CCR7 ubiquitylation profoundly impairs immune cell migration. Our results provide evidence for a novel function of receptor ubiquitylation in the regulation of CCR7 recycling and immune cell migration. © 2012. Source

Veith C.,Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center | Marsh L.M.,Ludwig Boltzmann Research Institute | Wygrecka M.,Justus Liebig University | Rutschmann K.,Dualsystems Biotech | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disease characterized by remodeling processes such as increased migration and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), enhanced matrix deposition, and dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins. However, the contribution of cytoskeletal proteins in PH is still not fully understood. In this study, we have used a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify novel binding partners of the cytoskeletal adaptor protein four-and-a-half LIM domains 1 (Fhl-1). This identified paxillin as a new Fhl-1 interacting partner, and consequently we assessed its contribution to vascular remodeling processes. Native protein-protein binding was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation studies in murine and human PASMC. Both proteins co-localized in PASMC in vitro and in vivo. In lung samples from idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients, paxillin expression was increased on mRNA and protein levels. Laser-microdissection of murine intrapulmonary arteries revealed elevated paxillin expression in hypoxia-induced PH. Furthermore, hypoxia-dependent upregulation of paxillin was HIF-1α dependent. Silencing of paxillin expression led to decreased PASMC adhesion, proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurred via Akt and Erk1/2 kinases. In addition, adhesion of PASMC to the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin was critically dependent on paxillin expression. To summarize, we identified paxillin as a new regulator protein of PASMC growth. © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Source

Zografou S.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Zografou S.,University of Ioannina | Basagiannis D.,Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas | Basagiannis D.,University of Ioannina | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2012

Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) are endothelial-cell-specific organelles that, upon fusion with the plasma membrane, release cargo molecules that are essential in blood vessel abnormalities, such as thrombosis and inflammation, as well as in angiogenesis. Despite the importance of WPBs, the basic mechanisms that mediate their secretion are only poorly understood. Rab GTPases play fundamental role in the trafficking of intracellular organelles. Yet, the only known WPB-associated Rabs are Rab27a and Rab3d. To determine the full spectrum of WPB-associated Rabs we performed a complete Rab screening by analysing the localisation of all Rabs in WPBs and their involvement in the secretory process in endothelial cells. Apart from Rab3 and Rab27, we identified three additional Rabs, Rab15 (a previously reported endocytic Rab), Rab33 and Rab37, on the WPB limiting membrane. A knockdown approach using siRNAs showed that among these five WPB Rabs only Rab3, Rab27 and Rab15 are required for exocytosis. Intriguingly, we found that Rab15 cooperates with Rab27a in WPB secretion. Furthermore, a specific effector of Rab27, Munc13-4, appears to be also an effector of Rab15 and is required for WPB exocytosis. These data indicate that WPB secretion requires the coordinated function of a specific group of Rabs and that, among them, Rab27a and Rab15, as well as their effector Munc13-4, cooperate to drive exocytosis. © 2012. Source

Uhlmann T.,University of Oxford | Uhlmann T.,Dualsystems Biotech | Geoghegan V.L.,University of Oxford | Thomas B.,University of Oxford | And 4 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2012

The lack of methods for proteome-scale detection of arginine methylation restricts our knowledge of its relevance in physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that most tryptic peptides containing methylated arginine(s) are highly basic and hydrophilic. Consequently, they could be considerably enriched from total cell extracts by simple protocols using either one of strong cation exchange chromatography, isoelectric focusing, or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, the latter being by far the most effective of all. These methods, coupled with heavy methyl-stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture and mass spectrometry, enabled in T cells the identification of 249 arginine methylation sites in 131 proteins, including 190 new sites and 93 proteins not previously known to be arginine methylated. By extending considerably the number of known arginine methylation sites, our data reveal a novel prolinerich consensus motif and identify for the first time arginine methylation in proteins involved in cytoskeleton rearrangement at the immunological synapse and in endosomal trafficking. © 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Sponder G.,Free University of Berlin | Rutschmann K.,Dualsystems Biotech | Kolisek M.,Free University of Berlin
Magnesium Research | Year: 2014

Membrane topology is an important parameter for understanding the function and regulation of any integral protein. This aspect of the NME SLC41A1 is currently under debate. The most probable model, which has been computer-predicted, exhibits ten TMh with both termini being oriented intracellularly. However, other freely accessible online prediction programs predict that SLC41A1 possesses eleven ("outside-in" configuration), nine ("outside-in" configuration), or eight ("inside-in" configuration) TMh. The consensus based on published experimental data acquired by independent research teams is that the N-terminal flanking region is located intracellularly. However, controversy remains about the orientation of the C-terminus, which has lately been proposed to be extracellular in peer-reviewed bibliography. Here, we performed splitubiquitin functional assays with transgenic SLC41A1 fused N- or C-terminally to a Cub-LexA-VP16 reporter cassette. The bait constructs were co-expressed in S. cerevisiae st. NMY51 with positive recombinant membrane markers (Ost1, Fur4, Alg5, Tom20) tagged with NubI (or NubG). Ubiquitin could only be reconstituted if the reporter moietywas exposed to the cytosol. Functional reconstitution of ubiquitin was observed when SLC41A1 C-terminally tagged with Cubwas co-expressed with NubI-tagged membrane markers, thereby, indicating a cytosolic orientation of the C-terminus of SLC41A1. Thus, our experimental data are in favor of the - the in silico analyses being strongly preferred - ten TMh model of SLC41A1 topology, with both termini being oriented intracellularly. Source

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