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Itapetininga, Brazil

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen potential, the losses of deriving the fermentative process, nutritional value, the fractioning of carbohydrates and protein the elephant grass silage wilted or not containing castor bean meal. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and with four replications: elephant grass wilted; elephant not wilted; elephant grass more castor bean meal (6%); elephant grass more castor bean meal (12%) and elephant grass more castor bean meal (18%), the coproduct was added with base on natural matter. We adopted a specific mass of 600 kg/m3. The silage containing 18% castor bean meal showed higher (P<0.05) pH (4.8). High level of ammoniacal nitrogen was observed in the silage grass not wilted (12.8% N-total). The castor bean meal was effective in reducing (P<0.05) losses to by effluent and total, providing a higher rate of recovery of dry matter. Also, was efficient in increasing (P<0.05) the levels of DM, ash, crude protein e lignin. Already for organic matter, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, total digestible nutrients, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and total carbohydrate decreased (P<0.05) with increasing doses of the castor bean meal. For the carbohydrate fractioning, there was no difference (P>0.05) among the silages with additives for fractions A+B1, B2 and C. For the protein fractioning, the fractions A and C decreased (P<0.05) with increase of the inclusion of castor bean meal, differently, of the fraction B1+B2 which increased. The castor bean stands out as a good additive in silage of elephant grass to reduce moisture and improve the fermentation characteristics of silages also was effective in increasing the protein value of silages, especially when using the dose 18%.

Pires A.J.V.,DTRA | De Carvalho G.G.P.,Federal University of Bahia | Ribeiro L.S.O.,UESB
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

Chemical treatment of roughage has been the aim of studies for a long time. However, until nowadays, many questions are arisen due to the efficiency of additives used in relation to the variation of answers, either in nutritive value of treated roughage or in performance of animals feed with diet containing such roughage. This revision will approach the main and most used products, which are anhydrous ammonia, urea, sodium hydroxide and calcium oxide. It has been noticed that ammonization (both for anhydrous ammonia and urea) has presented more efficient result in animal's performance when compared with sodium hydroxide or calcium oxide. However, regarding its nutritive value, both sodium hydroxide and calcium oxide have presented a higher efficiency in the decreasing of cell wall and in the increase of treated roughage' digestibility. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Almeida P.J.P.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Zootecnia | Pereira M.L.A.,DEBI | da Silva F.F.,DTRA | dos Santos A.B.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Zootecnia | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (Mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal and mineral supplementation) on performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients in Santa Inês lambs grazing on urochloa grass during the dry season. Twentyfour uncastrated weaned Santa Inês sheep, with average body weight (BW) 20±2 kg with an average of 120 days of age were used in the assay. The experiment lasted 75 days. The animals grazing deferred Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack) Daudy) were distributed into four treatments consisting of mineral supplementation provided ad libitum and concentrated supplements containing mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal, supplied 10 g /kg BW on dry matter basis. The intakes of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) were affected by the intake of concentrate supplement, regardless of the ingredients used in the supplements, compared with the mineral supplementation treatment, since the consumption of forage was reduced in 30% with mesquite pod meal supplement, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake was not affected in relation to treatments. The digestibility of DM and CP were higher for treatments with supplements, and NDF digestibility did not differ between treatments. A significant difference was observed in the values of average daily gain for the treatments with concentrate supplementation compared with the one of mineral supplementation. The supplementation with concentrate in grazing enables improvement of performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients regardless of the ingredient used in the supplement. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Hanna S.,Hanna Consultants | Chang J.,U.S. Homeland Security Studies and Analysis Institute | Fox S.,DHS Inc | Whitmire M.,Noblis | And 3 more authors.
HARMO 2014 - 16th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Proceedings | Year: 2014

Chlorine releases to the atmosphere can be extremely hazardous to health, the environment, and manmade materials. The 2010 Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field experiments at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, included releases of 1 or 2 tons of pressurized liquefied chlorine or anhydrous ammonia, and increased our understanding of the emissions characteristics and the transport and dispersion of these chemicals. Planning is underway for a campaign of field experiments in 2015 and 2016 called Jack Rabbit II (JR II), where much larger quantities (up to 20 tons) of pressurized liquefied chlorine will be released, consistent with likely volumes released during tanker truck or railcar accidents. This paper describes the status of the JR II planning, including consideration of the scientific needs and instrumentation capabilities. For example, we are identifying in situ and remote samplers that can obtain accurate readings at relatively high chlorine concentrations (larger than 1 %) near the source in the presence of aerosols and low concentrations (1 to 10 ppm) at distances of 10 or 20 km. It is desirable to measure chlorine aerosol sizes, too. There will be extensive supporting meteorological measurements. Several additional experiments" are planned, involving important science issues such as deposition to the ground and vegetation and subsequent re-evaporation, and studies of damage to various objects (e.g., metal, clothing). © Crown Copyright 2014 Dstl.

Andrade I.V.O.,UESB | Pires A.J.V.,DTRA | de Carvalho G.G.P.,Federal University of Bahia | Veloso C.M.,DTRA | Bonomo P.,DEBI
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The experiment was conducted to determine losses by gases and effluent, fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass silage containing cassava meal, coffee hulls and cocoa meal. It was used a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 4 factorial scheme, with three additives evaluated in four levels (0, 10, 20 and 30% of natural matter), each one with five repetitions. The material was ensiled in PVC silos for 60 days. After opening of the silos, weightings were carried out for determination of losses through the quantification of effluent production and also by losses by gases. Samples were collected for subsequent analyses of ammonia nitrogen content and pH values, as well as the chemical-bromatological composition. The additive addition caused an increase in the dry matter contents and cocoa meal was the most efficient additive to control effluent and gas losses. The addition of cassava meal, coffee hulls and cocoa meal assured high recovery rates of dry matter, while cassava meal and cocoa meal favored the reduction of pH values and ammonia nitrogen contents, respectively, resulting in silages fermentation profile improvement. The silages containing cassava meal presented greater total digestible nutrients contents and they assured lower neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose and lignin contents. Addition of cocoa meal to elephant grass at the moment of the ensilage contributed to increase total nitrogen content, however it increases insoluble nitrogen contents in neutral detergent and acid detergent. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

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