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Disfani M.M.,Swinburne University of Technology | Arulrajah A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Bo M.W.,DST Consulting Engineers Inc. | Hankour R.,Geocomp Corporation
Waste Management | Year: 2011

A comprehensive suite of geotechnical laboratory tests was undertaken on samples of recycled crushed glass produced in Victoria, Australia. Three types of recycled glass sources were tested being coarse, medium and fine sized glass. Laboratory testing results indicated that medium and fine sized recycled glass sources exhibit geotechnical behavior similar to natural aggregates. Coarse recycled glass was however found to be unsuitable for geotechnical engineering applications. Shear strength tests indicate that the fine and medium glass encompass shear strength parameters similar to that of natural sand and gravel mixtures comprising of angular particles. Environmental assessment tests indicated that the material meets the requirements of environmental protection authorities for fill material. The results were used to discuss potential usages of recycled glass as a construction material in geotechnical engineering applications particularly road works. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Arulrajah A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Ali M.M.Y.,Swinburne University of Technology | Disfani M.M.,Swinburne University of Technology | Piratheepan J.,Swinburne University of Technology | Bo M.W.,DST Consulting Engineers Inc.
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2013

Laboratory and field experiments were undertaken to investigate the possible application of recycled crushed glass blended with crushed basaltic waste rock as a footpath base material. The laboratory experimental program included basic and specialized geotechnical tests including particle size distribution, modified Proctor compaction, particle density, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR), Los Angeles abrasion, pH, organic content, and triaxial shear tests. A field demonstration footpath comprising two sections of recycled glasswaste rock blends with 15% and 30% recycled glass content and a third control section with only waste rock was subsequently constructed on the basis of the outcomes of the initial laboratory tests. Subsequently field tests with a nuclear density gauge and Clegg impact hammer were undertaken, as well as laboratory testing of field samples to assess the geotechnical performance of the trial sections. The field and laboratory test results indicated that adding crushed glass may improve the workability of the crushed waste rock base material but subsequently results in lower shear strength. The blend with 15% glass content was found to be the optimum blend, in which the material presented good workability and also had sufficiently high base strength. Higher recycled glass content (30%) resulted in borderline, though still satisfactory, performance. The research findings indicate that recycled crushed glass in blends with crushed waste rock is a potential alternative material to be used in footpath bases. A separate study is recommended to evaluate the environmental risks associated with the usage of these recycled materials. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Arulrajah A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Piratheepan J.,Swinburne University of Technology | Disfani M.M.,Swinburne University of Technology | Bo M.W.,DST Consulting Engineers Inc.
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2013

Results of an extensive series of repeated load triaxial tests performed on three major recycled construction and demolition (C&D) materials at various moisture contents and stress levels were analysed to ascertain their performance in pavement subbases. The development of the resulting permanent deformation that accumulates with the repeated loading and the determination of resilient modulus by two phases of the test are described. The experimental study shows that the C&D materials perform satisfactorily at a moisture content of about 70% of their optimum moisture contents. Furthermore, the C&D materials also satisfy the two-parameter and three-parameter models. The results of this study indicate that, at a density ratio of 98% compared to maximum dry density obtained in the modified proctor test and with moisture contents in the range of 65-90% of the optimum moisture content, most of the recycled C&D materials produce comparatively smaller permanent strain and greater resilient modulus than natural commonly used granular subbase materials in pavement subbase applications. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Disfani M.M.,Swinburne University of Technology | Arulrajah A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Suthagaran V.,Coffey Geotechnics | Bo M.W.,DST Consulting Engineers Inc.
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2013

An innovative research study was undertaken to characterize the settlement characteristics of aged wastewater biosolids to facilitate its long-term settlement prediction when used as fill material in road embankment applications. Settlement can be sub-divided into compression due to consolidation and deformation attributed to biodegradation. Results of an extensive geotechnical laboratory evaluation including compaction characteristics, shear strength parameters, coefficient of consolidation, compression index, swell index and coefficient of secondary consolidation were used to predict the consolidation settlement of biosolids in road embankments. Other relevant parameters for biodegradation settlement prediction, such as organic content, pH and electrical conductivity of the biosolids were also determined. The biodegradation induced settlement of a road embankment built with aged biosolids was subsequently analyzed by applying an analytical method used previously for municipal solid waste landfills. The adopted model shows that the rate of biodegradation settlement reduces with the reduction in pH values of biosolids. The model also suggests that the time taken for full process of biodegradation decreases dramatically with pH value of the biosolids between 0 and 6 and then increases exponentially with pH value of the biosolids between 8 and 14. A framework has been developed to predict the total settlement of wastewater biosolids in road embankments for end-users. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Arulrajah A.,Swinburne University of Technology | Piratheepan J.,Swinburne University of Technology | Aatheesan T.,Swinburne University of Technology | Bo M.W.,DST Consulting Engineers Inc.
Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper presents the findings of a laboratory investigation of the characterization of recycled crushed brick and an assessment of its performance as a pavement subbase material. The properties of the recycled crushed brick were compared with the local state road authority specifications in Australia to assess its performance as a pavement subbase material. The experimental program was extensive and included tests such as particle size distribution, modified Proctor compaction, particle density, water absorption, California bearing ratio, Los Angeles abrasion loss, pH, organic content, static triaxial, and repeated load triaxial tests. California bearing ratio values were found to satisfy the local state road authority requirements for a lower subbase material. The Los Angeles abrasion loss value obtained was just above the maximum limits specified for pavement subbase materials. The repeat load triaxial testing established that crushed brick would perform satisfactorily at a 65% moisture ratio level. At higher moisture ratio levels, shear strength of the crushed brick was found to be reduced beyond the acceptable limits. The results of the repeat load triaxial testing indicate that only recycled crushed brick with a moisture ratio of around 65% is a viable material for usage in pavement subbase applications. The geotechnical testing results indicate that crushed brick may have to be blended with other durable recycled aggregates to improve its durability and to enhance its performance in pavement subbase applications. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

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