Salem N.,Jr. |
Eggersdorfer M.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care | Year: 2015
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To delineate the available sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for human consumption and to determine if the available supply is capable of supplying the nutrient levels recommended by expert bodies. RECENT FINDINGS: There are converging opinions among experts, professional organizations and health professionals that a recommendation for a daily individual consumption of 500 mg of EPA/DHA would provide health benefits, and this translates to an annual human consumption of 1.3 million metric tons. Current human consumption of EPA/DHA is estimated to be only a small fraction of this amount and many people may suffer from suboptimal health as a result of low intake. EPA and DHA originate in the phytoplankton and are made available in the human food chain mainly through fish and other seafood. SUMMARY: The fish catch is not elastic and in fact has long since reached a plateau. Aquaculture has grown rapidly, but most of the fish oil produced is currently being used to support aquaculture feed and so this would appear to limit aquaculture growth - or at least the growth in availability of fish sources of EPA/DHA. Vegetable oil-derived alpha-linolenic acid, though relatively plentiful, is converted only at a trace level in humans to DHA and not very efficiently to EPA, and so cannot fill this gap. Microbial EPA/DHA production can in the future be increased, although this oil is likely to remain more expensive than fish oil. Plant sources of EPA and DHA have now been produced in the laboratory via transgenic means and will eventually clear regulatory hurdles for commercialization, but societal acceptance remains in question. The purpose of this review is to discuss the various sources of omega-3 fatty acids within the context of the potential world demand for these nutrients. In summary, it is concluded that fish and vegetable oil sources will not be adequate to meet future needs, but that algal oil and terrestrial plants modified genetically to produce EPA and DHA could provide for the increased world demand. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Engstrom M.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
Journal of animal science | Year: 2010
With appropriate management controls and statistical designs, on-farm trials are an increasingly valuable research tool. On-farm trials can speed up technology adoption, particularly with those studies requiring large numbers of animals. Useful designs include longitudinal (pen vs. pen) trials, in which pen is the experimental unit, and crossover or switchback designs, in which treatments are imposed on a schedule over 1 or more experimental groups. A paired-herd design has been used, in which herds are the experimental units in a crossover trial. Others have published similar studies, including a multisite crossover design that used 35 dairy farms to compare milk responses with a protein source by using individual cow records to evaluate differences in milk production. Recently, statistical process control (SPC) techniques have been used to evaluate management changes by using repeated measures on the farm. Although a drawback to SPC may be the lack of traditional statistics to test differences (i.e., the lack of a control group), standard run rules are used to demonstrate with statistical certainty that a process or variable has changed, or to characterize a seasonal change. With SPC, the inference is limited to the herd or group of animals being monitored. Meta-analysis techniques are powerful tools used to combine results from many similar trials in which the response of interest is either small (i.e., continuous variables) or of low frequency (i.e., discrete variables). Meta-analysis can be used to segment a database so as to validate and compare trial methods or to investigate publication bias. Additional design concerns for reproduction studies include the need for adequate numbers of observations and planning for the lag time between an experimental treatment and response measurement (e.g., confirmation of pregnancy).
Raederstorff D.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc. |
Kunz I.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc. |
Schwager J.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2013
The polyphenol resveratrol is found notably in grapes and in a variety of medicinal plants. Recently, resveratrol has been suggested to have cardioprotective effects and to improve metabolic health by mimicking the effects of calorie restriction. Numerous animal and in vitro studies suggest that resveratrol could improve cardiovascular and metabolic health in humans. In view of this compelling preclinical evidence, several human studies investigating the effects of resveratrol on vascular and metabolic health have been initiated. Collectively, the animal, human epidemiological, and first human intervention studies support a role of resveratrol in vascular and metabolic health. This has led to the introduction of the first supplement and food products containing resveratrol and its emergence as a promising new health ingredient. Thus, supplementation with resveratrol may be included in nutritional and lifestyle programs aiming to reduce the risk of vascular and obesity-related problems. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.
Handa R.J.,University of Arizona |
Weiser M.J.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2014
The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents a complex neuroendocrine feedback loop controlling the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoid hormones. Central to its function is the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) where neurons expressing corticotropin releasing factor reside. These HPA motor neurons are a primary site of integration leading to graded endocrine responses to physical and psychological stressors. An important regulatory factor that must be considered, prior to generating an appropriate response is the animal's reproductive status. Thus, PVN neurons express androgen and estrogen receptors and receive input from sites that also express these receptors. Consequently, changes in reproduction and gonadal steroid levels modulate the stress response and this underlies sex differences in HPA axis function. This review examines the make up of the HPA axis and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the interactions between the two that should be considered when exploring normal and pathological responses to environmental stressors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Salem N.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc. |
Kuratko C.N.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2014
It has proven difficult to compare the bioavailability of krill oil (KO) vs. fish oil (FO) due to several of the characteristics of KO. These include the lower concentration of the active ingredients, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3), in KO as well as differences in their ratio relative to FO as well as the red color due to astaxanthin. In addition, the lipid classes in which EPA and DHA are found are quite different with KO containing phospholipid, di- and tri-glycerides as well as non-esterified fatty acid forms and with FO being primarily triglycerides. No human study has yet been performed that matches the dose of EPA and DHA in a randomized, controlled trial with measures of bloodstream EPA and DHA content. However, several claims have been made suggesting greater bioavailability of KO vs. FO. These have largely been based on a statistical argument where a somewhat lower dose of KO has been used to result in a similar bloodstream level of EPA and/or DHA or their total. However, the magnitude of the dosage differential is shown to be too small to be expected to result in differing blood levels of the long chain n-3 PUFAs. Some studies which have claimed to provide equal doses of KO and FO have actually used differing amounts of the two major n-3 fatty acid constituents. It is concluded that there is at present no evidence for greater bioavailability of KO vs. FO and that more carefully controlled human trials must be performed to establish their relative efficacies after chronic administration. © 2014 Salem and Kuratko.
Hammond Jr. B.R.,University of Georgia |
Fletcher L.M.,University of Georgia |
Elliott J.G.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2013
PURPOSE. A large body of research has linked macular lutein and zeaxanthin to reduced risk of degenerative eye disease. The earliest published hypothesis for the role of the pigments was not based on chronic protection but immediate function. Recent data on macular pigment (MP) have shown that screening the foveal cones from short-wave light does, in fact, result in improvements in photostress recovery (PR), glare disability (GD), and chromatic contrast (CC). This study examined those relations on a larger sample. METHODS. A total of 150 young healthy subjects were assessed. Plasma samples were obtained from 100 subjects for HPLC quantification of serum xanthophylls. MP density was measured using customized heterochromatic flicker photometery. GD, PR, and CC were measured in Maxwellian view using a broadband xenon light source. GD was measured by increasing the intensity of an annulus until it veiled a central target. PR was measured as the time necessary to regain sight of a central target after a 5-second exposure to an intense bleaching light. CC was measured as the amount of light necessary in a 460-nm background to lose sight of a central target. RESULTS. MP density was significantly related to serum lutein and zeaxanthin combined (r=0.31, P=0.002), GD (r=0.24, P = 0.0015), PR (r =-0.18, P = 0.01), and CC (r = 0.46, P = 0.00005). CONCLUSIONS. These results confirm earlier reports of a significant relation between variation in macular pigment optical density and immediate effects on visual function. As with many species, intraocular yellow filters in humans appear to improve many aspects of the visual stimulus. (ClinicalTrials. gov number, NCT00909090.) © 2013 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Fruhauf D.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc. |
Juza M.,DSM Nutritional Products Inc.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2012
A sub-minute enantioselective normal phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the analysis of a chiral precursor molecule employed frequently in folic acid syntheses was developed, optimized and successfully validated according to ICH-guidelines. It could be shown that ultra-high performance chromatography (UHPLC) can give significant advantages compared to traditional HPLC not only in reversed phase HPLC, but also for enantioselective separations in normal phase mode. Novel 3 μm-particle sizes allow developing analytical chromatographic methods completely resolving two enantiomers in the shortest time possible while preserving high efficiency and low detection limits. By offering increased resolution, sensitivity and speed, enantioselective UHPLC (eUHPLC) improves sample throughput, productivity and provides considerably faster access to information on enantiomeric purity also under non-aqueous conditions. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
DSM Nutritional Products Inc. | Date: 2013-03-04
A powder composition containing at least one fat-soluble vitamin dispersed in a matrix of a natural polysaccharide gum or a mixture of gums having an emulsifying capacity and/or a protein or a mixture of proteins having an emulsifying capacity. The fat-soluble vitamin in the powder compositions is in the form of droplets having an average diameter in the range of about 70 to about 200 nm. Tablets, beverages and beverage concentrates, foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals containing the powder composition can be made.
DSM Nutritional Products Inc. | Date: 2013-07-31
Disclosed are methods of improving the sensory and oxidative stability of oils (e.g., plant and animal oils) by combining an oil and an antioxidant composition comprising green tea extract and deodorizing the oil. Oils prepared by these methods are also disclosed.
DSM Nutritional Products Inc. | Date: 2014-03-05
Disclosed are food articles comprising microcapsules as delivery devices. Methods of preparing such food articles are also disclosed.