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Rutherfurd S.M.,Riddet Institute | Chung T.K.,DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific | Thomas D.V.,Massey University | Zou M.L.,Riddet Institute | Moughan P.J.,Riddet Institute
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The addition of microbial phytase to diets for broiler chickens has been shown to improve the availability of phytate P, total P, some other minerals, and amino acids. In this study, the effect of a novel microbial phytase expressed by synthetic genes in Aspergillus oryzae on amino acid and mineral availability was assessed. Phytase was incorporated (1,000 and 2,000 U/kg) into low-P corn-soybean meal-based diets for broilers. Broilers received the experimental diets for 3 wk, and excreta were collected from d 18 to 21 for the determination of AME and mineral retention. On the 22nd day, the broilers were killed and the left leg removed and ileal digesta collected. Ileal phytate P and total P absorption, ileal amino acid digestibility, as well as the bone mineral content and bone mineral density were determined. Ileal phytate P absorption and absorbed phytate P content of the low-P corn-soybean meal diet were significantly (P < 0.05) higher after dietary inclusion of the novel phytase (49-60% and 65- 77% higher, respectively). Apparent ileal total P absorption and apparent total P retention was 12 to 16% and 14 to 19% higher (P < 0.05), respectively, after dietary inclusion of phytase. The bone mineral content and bone mineral density in the tibia were 32 to 35% and 19 to 21% higher (P < 0.05), respectively, after dietary phytase inclusion. The apparent ileal digestibility of threonine, tyrosine, and histidine increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 14, 9, and 7%, respectively, after dietary inclusion of microbial phytase. Overall, the inclusion of a novel microbial phytase into a low-P corn-soybean meal diet for broiler chickens greatly increased phytate P and total P absorption, bone mineral content and density, as well as the digestibility of some amino acids. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source


Coffey J.D.,Texas Tech University | Hines E.A.,Texas Tech University | Starkey J.D.,Texas Tech University | Starkey C.W.,Texas Tech University | Chung T.K.,DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

Little information is available regarding the effects of vitamin D and its metabolites on reproduction in swine. To investigate the effects of feeding the circulating metabolite of vitamin D, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3, ROVIMIX Hy•D, DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland) on maternal and fetal circulating 25OHD3 concentration and gilt reproductive performance, a total of 40 PIC Camborough-22 gilts (BW on d -6 = 138 kg) in 4 replicates were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 corn-soybean meal-based diets. The control diet (CTL) was formulated to contain 2,500 IU D3/kg diet, and the experimental diet (25OHD3) was formulated to contain 500 IU D3/kg diet + 50 μg 25OHD3/kg diet. Gilts were fed 2.7 kg of their assigned diet once daily beginning 43 d before breeding. Gilt BW were measured on gestational d -6 and d 90. Gilts were artificially inseminated with PIC 337-G semen 12 h and 24 h after showing signs of estrus. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on gestational d -43, -13, 46, and 89 for analysis of circulating 25OHD3 plasma concentration and overall vitamin D status of the gilts. At gestational d 90 ± 1, gilts were harvested and reproductive tracts were removed. Fetal weight, sex, crown-to-rump length (CRL), as well as the number of mummified fetuses were recorded. As expected, circulating plasma concentrations of 25OHD3 were not different among treatment groups at d -43 (CTL = 53.8 ng/mL, 25OHD3 = 57.4 ng/mL; P = 0.66). However, gilts fed 25OHD3 had greater (P < 0.001) circulating plasma concentrations of 25OHD3 on d -13 (89.7 vs. 56.7 ng/mL), d 46 (95.8 vs. 55.7 ng/mL), and d 89 (92.8 vs. 58.2 ng/mL) of gestation compared with CTL-fed gilts. Circulating 25OHD3 was also greater in fetuses from 25OHD3-fed gilts on d 90 (P < 0.001). A 23% increase in pregnancy rate was observed in 25OHD3-fed gilts compared with CTL (78% vs. 55%, respectively; P = 0.21). Maternal BW gain (without conceptus), number of mummified fetuses, mean fetal weight, and mean fetal CRL were similar among treatments (P > 0.05). However, litter size was larger (CTL = 10.2; 25OHD3 = 12.7; P = 0.04) in 25OHD3-fed gilts compared with CTL-fed gilts. Notably, mean fetal weight was not decreased in 25OHD3-fed gilts as frequently occurs when litter size is increased. Overall, feeding 25OHD3 to first-service gilts before and during gestation improved both maternal and fetal vitamin D status and improved maternal reproductive performance. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Hines E.A.,Texas Tech University | Coffey J.D.,Texas Tech University | Starkey C.W.,Texas Tech University | Chung T.K.,DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific | Starkey J.D.,Texas Tech University
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013

There is little information available regarding the influence of maternal vitamin D status on fetal skeletal muscle development. Therefore, we investigated the effect of improved vitamin D status resulting from 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) supplementation of dams on fetal skeletal muscle developmental characteristics and myoblast activity using Camborough 22 gilts (n = 40) randomly assigned to 1 of 2 corn-soybean meal-based diets. The control diet (CTL) contained 2,500 IU cholecalciferol (D3)/kg diet, whereas the experimental diet contained 500 IU D3/kg diet plus 50 μg 25OHD3/kg diet. Gilts were fed 2.7 kg of their assigned diet once daily beginning 43 d before breeding through d 90 of gestation. On gestational d 90 (±1), fetal LM and semitendinosus muscle samples were collected for analysis of developmental characteristics and myoblast activity, respectively. No treatment difference was observed in fetal LM cross-sectional area (P = 0.25). Fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts had more LM fibers (P = 0.04) that tended to be smaller in cross-sectional area compared with CTL fetuses (P = 0.11). A numerical increase in the total number of Pax7+ myoblasts was also observed in fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts (P = 0.12). Myoblasts derived from the muscles of fetuses from 25OHD3-fed dams displayed an extended proliferative phase in culture compared with those from fetuses of dams fed only D3 (P < 0.0001). The combination of additional muscle fibers and Pax7+ myoblasts with prolonged proliferative capacity could enhance the postnatal skeletal muscle growth potential of fetuses from 25OHD3-supplemented gilts. These data highlight the importance of maternal vitamin D status on the development of fetal skeletal muscle. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Chung T.K.,DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific | Rutherfurd S.M.,Riddet Institute | Thomas D.V.,Massey University | Moughan P.J.,Riddet Institute
British Poultry Science | Year: 2013

1. The efficacy of supplementation of a low-phosphorus (low-P) maize-soyabean meal diet for broiler chickens with two different microbial (fungal and bacterial) phytases was examined. 2. Broiler chickens received a low-P maize-soyabean meal diet containing either no phytase or one of the two phytases included at one and two times the manufacturer's recommended inclusion level for 21 d. 3. Titanium dioxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. Excreta were collected quantitatively from d 18 to 21, and at the end of the study the birds were killed and ileal digesta and leg bone samples collected. 4. No differences were observed for body weight gain and feed intake or apparent metabolisable energy (AME) among all dietary treatment groups. 5. Dietary phytase supplementation improved the apparent retention of Ca, Na and Cu and ileal phytate P absorption from 32% to 44% across inclusion levels. 6. Bone mineral density (BMD) was improved for both phytases across inclusion levels by, on average, 9% for the tibia and 13% for the femur. 7. Dietary phytase supplementation of the low-P diet improved apparent ileal digestibility of serine, glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, histidine, lysine and arginine. 8. When the results from the present study were combined with the results from other similar published studies and analysed statistically, factors such as dietary P and Ca concentration, as well as bird breed and age, rather than the type or activity of microbial phytase, had the greatest impact on the extent to which dietary supplementation improved P and Ca retention. 9. More work is required to explain the interrelationships between the multiple factors influencing the efficacy of phytase on the availability of dietary minerals. © 2013 Copyright © 2013 British Poultry Science Ltd. Source


Rutherfurd S.M.,Riddet Institute | Chung T.K.,DSM Nutritional Products Asia Pacific | Moughan P.J.,Riddet Institute
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The study aimed to determine the impact of dietary microbial phytase supplementation on the apparent digestibility of minerals, other than P and Ca, throughout the gastrointestinal tract of the growing pig. Thirty-two entire male pigs (approximately 22. kg bodyweight) were allocated equally to three dietary treatments. All diets were corn-soybean meal diets deficient in P and Ca and were either not supplemented with microbial phytase or supplemented with microbial phytase at 1107 and 2215. U/kg respectively. Titanium dioxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. The pigs received their respective diets for 42 days and faecal samples were collected over days 40-42. On day 43, stomach chyme, terminal jejunal and terminal ileal digesta were collected post-euthanasia. Na, K, Mg, Fe, S, Cu, Mn and Zn were determined in the diets, chyme, digesta and faecal samples and apparent mineral digestibility was determined at the gastric, jejunal, ileal and total tract levels. Apparent mineral digestibility was different (P<0.01) across gastrointestinal tract locations. However, dietary microbial phytase supplementation had no effect (P>0.05) on the apparent digestibility of any of the minerals examined at any of the gastrointestinal tract locations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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