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News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.gizmag.com

The Asus Tinker Board offers more processing grunt than the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B and includes more system memory (Credit: Asus) Originally leaked in January, Asus has announced US availability for its Raspberry Pi challenger – the Tinker Board. The single board computer boasts a quad-core processor supported by 2 GB of system memory, UHD video playback and Hi-Res audio support, and a Bluetooth/Wi-Fi double act. It does cost slightly more than a Pi though. Asus has been churning out top notch motherboards for desktop computers and laptops for many years now, so it's hardly a shock to find the company taking aim at the maker, hobbyist, educator or circuit board scientist with the Tinker Board. The roughly credit card-sized mini computer starts the gauntlet throwing with a 1.8 GHz RK3288 quad-core system-on-a-chip processor and 2 GB of LPDDR3 system memory, which bests the Pi 3 Model B in both spec for spec comparisons. The Asus board also rocks a Mali-T764 GPU and promises 4K video playback support at up to 30 Hz (including H.264/H.265 decoding). And, where you will likely have to attach a separate audio module to the Pi in order to enjoy high quality audio, Asus says that its 85.6 x 56 x 21 mm (3.37 x 2.2 x 0.8 in) Tinker Board is capable of supporting files up to 24-bit/192 kHz resolution out of the box. Elsewhere it appears to be much of a muchness. The Tinker Board offers four USB 2.0 ports, a HDMI 1.4 port and 3.5 mm audio jack. It has a 40-pin GPIO interface header for sensors, switches motors and so on, a 15-pin MIPI DSI for connecting a small display or touchscreen and a 15-pin MIPI CSI for cameras. The board is powered via micro-USB, though Asus doesn't provide an adapter so makers will need to source their own 5 V/2.5 A supply. There's Bluetooth 4.0 and 802.11b/g/n Wi-Fi, plus gigabit Ethernet and a microSD slot for the OS and storage. The board runs on a Linux-based TinkerOS and, which is based on the latest Debian 9 core and includes an optimized Chromium web browser and TinkerOS media player. Android support is also on the to-do list (currently in beta). The Tinker Board is available in the US from today for a suggested retail price of US$54.99. The video below shows what's on offer.


News Article | April 29, 2017
Site: www.PR.com

DoD CIO & DHS to join Dept. of State for Mobile Security Summit Defense Strategies Institute's Mobile Security for Defense and Government Summit provides the opportunities for attendees to engage in a collaborative forum discussing various initiatives and efforts to overcome the challenges brought on by the increased use of mobile devices within the DoD and Federal agencies. Briefings will revolve around the theme of "Improving Security and Innovation for the Mobile Ecosystem." Arlington, VA, April 29, 2017 --( On June 7th & 8th at the AUSA Conference Center, Defense Strategies Institute will host the 4th Mobile Security for Defense and Government Summit. This whole-of-Government Mobile Security event will provide a forum to address and improve internal and external initiatives; meet with and hear from partner organizations; disseminate vital capability requirements to industry; increase visibility within the larger community; and generally support their mission. DSI welcomes any questions to have posed during the forum: questions should align with the topics of the sessions. Keynote Speaker Highlight: Mr. Bill Marion, SES, Deputy Chief, Information Dominance & DCIO, US Air Force. Mr. Marion has made keeping the Air Force mobile, agile and adaptable a top priority. His office has overseen a significant cloud integration initiative that has decreased the IT footprint and made the Air Force more efficient. Mr. Marion's keynote address will focus on the most important mobility and cloud integration challenges facing the Air Force and the work his office is doing to ensure security and agility in the Air Force’s IT infrastructure. Additional Speakers to Include: - Mr. Frontis B. Wiggins, SES, Chief Information Officer, US Department of State - Mr. Gary Wang, Deputy CIO, HQDA Chief Information Officer / G-6, US Army - Mr. Kenneth Bible, SES, Deputy Director, C4 / Deputy CIO, USMC - Mr. Manish Patel, CIO, PEO EIS, US Army Seating is limited – In order to allow for actionable discussion and dialogue amongst speaker and attendees, seating will be limited. Early Registration has now begun. Register now to reserve your seat. Active military, government and State personnel attend complimentary. Those interested in participating in the 4th Mobile Security for Defense and Government Summit can visit Defense Strategies Institute's website at http://mobilesecurity.dsigroup.org/. Anyone interested in learning more or sending questions contact Morgan at mcolfax@dsigroup.org, 1-201-266-0058. **Summit is Closed to Press / No Recordings** Arlington, VA, April 29, 2017 --( PR.com )-- The pace of technological advancement is in a near constant state of acceleration. Keeping up with an ever-changing IT ecosystem has proven to be a demanding task for the government and military. Mobile technology is as ubiquitous within these entities as it is in every other aspect of modern society. There are two basic challenges that must be addressed: securing the mobile devices and protecting the data that they store and transmit. Finding the correct balance between agility and security in the federal workforce is a high priority and understanding how to achieve this will be a central theme to the Summit.On June 7th & 8th at the AUSA Conference Center, Defense Strategies Institute will host the 4th Mobile Security for Defense and Government Summit. This whole-of-Government Mobile Security event will provide a forum to address and improve internal and external initiatives; meet with and hear from partner organizations; disseminate vital capability requirements to industry; increase visibility within the larger community; and generally support their mission.DSI welcomes any questions to have posed during the forum: questions should align with the topics of the sessions.Keynote Speaker Highlight:Mr. Bill Marion, SES, Deputy Chief, Information Dominance & DCIO, US Air Force. Mr. Marion has made keeping the Air Force mobile, agile and adaptable a top priority. His office has overseen a significant cloud integration initiative that has decreased the IT footprint and made the Air Force more efficient. Mr. Marion's keynote address will focus on the most important mobility and cloud integration challenges facing the Air Force and the work his office is doing to ensure security and agility in the Air Force’s IT infrastructure.Additional Speakers to Include:- Mr. Frontis B. Wiggins, SES, Chief Information Officer, US Department of State- Mr. Gary Wang, Deputy CIO, HQDA Chief Information Officer / G-6, US Army- Mr. Kenneth Bible, SES, Deputy Director, C4 / Deputy CIO, USMC- Mr. Manish Patel, CIO, PEO EIS, US ArmySeating is limited –In order to allow for actionable discussion and dialogue amongst speaker and attendees, seating will be limited. Early Registration has now begun. Register now to reserve your seat. Active military, government and State personnel attend complimentary. Those interested in participating in the 4th Mobile Security for Defense and Government Summit can visit Defense Strategies Institute's website at http://mobilesecurity.dsigroup.org/.Anyone interested in learning more or sending questions contact Morgan at mcolfax@dsigroup.org, 1-201-266-0058.**Summit is Closed to Press / No Recordings** Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Defense Strategies Institute


News Article | April 30, 2017
Site: www.PR.com

DSI's 3rd Electromagnetic Spectrum Summit, occurring June 20-21, 2017, will focus on emerging concepts, technologies and challenges that exist within the ever-growing domain of electromagnetic spectrum operations. Alexandria, VA, April 30, 2017 --( As war continues to shift further into the EW/Cyber domain and competing nations are gaining an edge on this emerging threat, the DoD is looking towards EW as a critical aspect of all warfighter operations and deems it vital to our military success. The crucial importance of defending our nation against Electronic Attacks only increases the necessity to master the utilization of the EMS and achieve greater spectrum access. In order to remain superior, the US has been devoting significant research and investment in advancing EMS technology and capabilities. On June 20 & 21 Defense Strategies Institute will host the 3rd Electromagnetic Spectrum Summit at the Mary M Gates Learning Center in Alexandria, VA. This whole-of-Government event will provide a forum to address the operational concepts and technologies to advance US dominance of the electromagnetic spectrum. Keynote Speakers to Include: - BG(P) Patricia Frost, USA Director of Cyber, HQDA G-3/5/7 (Tentative) - Brig Gen Edward Sauley, USAF, Deputy Director of Operations for Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations, USSTRATCOM - BG Joseph McGee, USA, Deputy Commander, Operations, US Army Cyber Command -Tina Harrington, Director, Signals Intelligence, Systems Acquisition Directorate, National Reconnaissance Office - Douglas Wiltsie, SES, Director, Rapid Capabilities Office, US Army - Ellen Purdy, Director, Emerging Capabilities & Prototyping Initiative & Analysis Office, ASD (R&E) New Topics For This Year's Summit - Maximizing access and enhancing battlefield effectiveness within the electromagnetic spectrum - Understanding what the convergence of EW and Cyber means for the force - The importance of becoming more spectrally efficient, flexible, and adaptable in congested and contested electromagnetic environments - Operational concepts and technologies to advance US dominance of the electromagnetic spectrum - Current maritime, expeditionary, and airborne electronic warfare strategies and objectives - Understanding the developing challenges of creating spectrum-dependent technology - Current activities towards synchronizing cyberspace operations, EQ, and Spectrum Management - Utilizing the spectrum of available technologies to protect and defend electronic attacks and countermeasures - Understanding the emerging significance of Cognitive Electronic Warfare in producing countermeasures - How to address the operational problems of EW across multi-domains Full agenda can be found at http://ew.dsigroup.org/download-the-agenda/agenda-download-form/ DSI welcomes any questions to have posed during the forum: questions should align with the topics of the sessions. Seating is limited – In order to allow for actionable discussion and dialogue amongst speaker and attendees, seating will be limited. Early Registration has now begun. Register now to reserve your seat. Active military, government and State personnel attend complimentary. Those interested in participating in the 3rd Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Summit can visit Defense Strategies Institute's website at http://ew.dsigroup.org/ Anyone interested in learning more or sending questions contact Morgan at mcolfax@dsigroup.org, 1-201-266-0058. **Summit is Closed to Press / No Recordings** Alexandria, VA, April 30, 2017 --( PR.com )-- Defense Strategies Institute is pleased to announce the Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Summit, occurring on June 20-21, 2017.As war continues to shift further into the EW/Cyber domain and competing nations are gaining an edge on this emerging threat, the DoD is looking towards EW as a critical aspect of all warfighter operations and deems it vital to our military success. The crucial importance of defending our nation against Electronic Attacks only increases the necessity to master the utilization of the EMS and achieve greater spectrum access. In order to remain superior, the US has been devoting significant research and investment in advancing EMS technology and capabilities.On June 20 & 21 Defense Strategies Institute will host the 3rd Electromagnetic Spectrum Summit at the Mary M Gates Learning Center in Alexandria, VA. This whole-of-Government event will provide a forum to address the operational concepts and technologies to advance US dominance of the electromagnetic spectrum.Keynote Speakers to Include:- BG(P) Patricia Frost, USA Director of Cyber, HQDA G-3/5/7 (Tentative)- Brig Gen Edward Sauley, USAF, Deputy Director of Operations for Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations, USSTRATCOM- BG Joseph McGee, USA, Deputy Commander, Operations, US Army Cyber Command-Tina Harrington, Director, Signals Intelligence, Systems Acquisition Directorate, National Reconnaissance Office- Douglas Wiltsie, SES, Director, Rapid Capabilities Office, US Army- Ellen Purdy, Director, Emerging Capabilities & Prototyping Initiative & Analysis Office, ASD (R&E)New Topics For This Year's Summit- Maximizing access and enhancing battlefield effectiveness within the electromagnetic spectrum- Understanding what the convergence of EW and Cyber means for the force- The importance of becoming more spectrally efficient, flexible, and adaptable in congested and contested electromagnetic environments- Operational concepts and technologies to advance US dominance of the electromagnetic spectrum- Current maritime, expeditionary, and airborne electronic warfare strategies and objectives- Understanding the developing challenges of creating spectrum-dependent technology- Current activities towards synchronizing cyberspace operations, EQ, and Spectrum Management- Utilizing the spectrum of available technologies to protect and defend electronic attacks and countermeasures- Understanding the emerging significance of Cognitive Electronic Warfare in producing countermeasures- How to address the operational problems of EW across multi-domainsFull agenda can be found at http://ew.dsigroup.org/download-the-agenda/agenda-download-form/DSI welcomes any questions to have posed during the forum: questions should align with the topics of the sessions.Seating is limited –In order to allow for actionable discussion and dialogue amongst speaker and attendees, seating will be limited. Early Registration has now begun. Register now to reserve your seat. Active military, government and State personnel attend complimentary. Those interested in participating in the 3rd Electromagnetic Spectrum Operations Summit can visit Defense Strategies Institute's website at http://ew.dsigroup.org/Anyone interested in learning more or sending questions contact Morgan at mcolfax@dsigroup.org, 1-201-266-0058.**Summit is Closed to Press / No Recordings** Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Defense Strategies Institute


News Article | April 10, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

FORT WAYNE, Ind., April 10, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Franklin Electric Co., Inc. (NASDAQ:FELE) announced today that it has reached agreement to acquire controlling interests in three distributors in the U.S. professional groundwater market.  Franklin Electric will acquire 2M Company Inc. of Billings, Montana; Western Hydro Holding Corporation of Hayward, California and Drillers Service, Inc. (DSI) of Hickory, North Carolina for approximately $89 million in the aggregate, which includes assumed debt.  The 2M and Western Hydro transactions have closed and the Company expects the DSI acquisition to close before the end of the second quarter 2017.  “The specialized groundwater distribution channel in the U.S. through which we sell our products is an important element in the ultimate sale, support and specification to the installing contractors.  Working in partnership with our distributors, Franklin Electric has developed a broad array of products and systems solutions that will only grow as regulatory and efficiency demands increase in North America. Over the last several years, Franklin Electric has worked closely with the management of these three companies and the leadership of other strategic distribution partners.  These relationships have provided us with insight into and appreciation for the value proposition offered by water systems distribution.  By acquiring Western Hydro, 2M and DSI, including the stand-alone 2M/DSI joint venture, Franklin Electric is forward integrating into this channel with four strong, customer focused organizations competing in the market, increasing our commitment to the entire channel and the installing contractor base. Our new distribution entity, with a national footprint of sixty locations and nearly 500 employees, will be the largest in the industry.” Franklin Electric will operate the acquired distributors in an entity named Headwater Companies, LLC.  The Company has named DeLancey W. Davis, a twenty-five-year industry veteran including the last eleven as an executive officer of Franklin Electric, as President of Headwater Companies, LLC.  Mr. Davis will have overall leadership responsibility for the new Headwater Distribution segment and will begin to immediately integrate the three acquisitions into a single operating unit. For financial reporting purposes, as of the second quarter, all the acquired entities will be wholly owned subsidiaries and included in the Company’s consolidated results.  The Headwater Distribution segment will be reported separately from the existing Water Systems segment, which will continue to report the results of the global water manufacturing business.  The new segment is expected to have operating income margins of approximately 4 to 6 percent and pre-tax return on capital measures consistent with historical Franklin Electric returns after certain integration actions are complete. The new segment will have approximately $275 million of consolidated annual sales and is expected to be neutral to the 2017 adjusted earnings per share guidance of $1.77 to $1.87 the Company has provided. The earnings from the acquired companies are expected to add twelve to fourteen cents to Franklin Electric’s 2018 adjusted earnings per share. “By forward integrating into distribution in the U.S., Franklin Electric is taking a logical next step in our evolution as a groundwater pumping systems company.  This action places Franklin Electric shoulder to shoulder with the key decision makers in this end market—distributors and the installing contractors.  The Headwater companies will continue to operate as full line wholesale distributors with a focus on total water systems support, including products from all industry manufacturers.  Headwater will maintain a laser focus on supporting the professional installing contractor.” A conference call to review this announcement will commence at 9:00 am EDT on Tuesday, April 11, 2017.  The webcast will be available in a listen only mode by going to: If you intend to ask questions during the call, please dial in using (877) 643-7158 for domestic calls and (914) 495-8565 for international calls.  The conference ID is: 3677145 A replay of the conference call will be available Tuesday, April 11, 2017 at 1:00 pm EDT through 1:00 pm EDT on Tuesday, April 18, 2017, by dialing (855) 859-2056 for domestic calls and (404) 537-3406 for international calls.  The replay passcode is: 3677145. Franklin Electric is a global leader in the production and marketing of systems and components for the movement of water and fuel. Recognized as a technical leader in its products and services, Franklin Electric serves customers around the world in residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, municipal, and fueling applications. “Safe Harbor” Statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Any forward-looking statements contained herein, including those relating to market conditions or the Company’s financial results, costs, expenses or expense reductions, profit margins, inventory levels, foreign currency translation rates, liquidity expectations, business goals and sales growth, involve risks and uncertainties, including but not limited to, risks and uncertainties with respect to general economic and currency conditions, various conditions specific to the Company’s business and industry, weather conditions, new housing starts, market demand, competitive factors, changes in distribution channels, supply constraints, effect of price increases,  raw material costs, technology factors, integration of acquisitions, litigation, government and regulatory actions, the Company’s accounting policies, future trends, and other risks which are detailed in the Company’s Securities and Exchange Commission filings, included in Item 1A of Part I of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2016, Exhibit 99.1 attached thereto and in Item 1A of Part II of the Company’s Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q. These risks and uncertainties may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by the forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements made herein are based on information currently available, and the Company assumes no obligation to update any forward-looking statement.


News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

LAS VEGAS et SÃO PAULO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Rimini Street, Inc., principal prestataire mondial indépendant de services de support aux logiciels d'entreprise pour les logiciels Business Suite, BusinessObjects et HANA Database de SAP SE (NYSE : SAP) ainsi que pour les logiciels Siebel, PeopleSoft, JD Edwards, E-Business Suite, Oracle Database, Oracle Middleware, Hyperion, Oracle Retail, Oracle Agile PLM et Oracle ATG Web Commerce d’Oracle Corporation (NYSE : ORCL), a annoncé aujourd'hui que le Groupe Petrópolis, l'une des plus grandes entreprises de boissons au Brésil, avait sélectionné Rimini Street pour le soutien de ses systèmes SAP ECC 6.0, BusinessObjects et Business Warehouse. En abandonnant le soutien proposé par le vendeur et en passant à Rimini Street, le Groupe Petrópolis a immédiatement économisé 50 % sur ses frais de maintenance annuels et acquis un service ultra-réactif de qualité supérieure pour ses systèmes SAP. La société recevra également des mises à jour fiscales, juridiques et réglementaires critiques de la part de Rimini Street. « En optant pour Rimini Street, nous nous attendons à augmenter notre productivité et à améliorer nos performances dans de nombreux domaines de l'ensemble de l'organisation », a déclaré Mohamed Nassif, directeur informatique du groupe Petrópolis au Brésil. « Le passage à Rimini Street peut être bénéfique à toute entreprise, car ils offrent une excellente alternative aux DSI qui recherchent une qualité de support élevée, des délais de réponse plus rapides et des économies de coûts qui pourront être utilisés afin de financer des initiatives novatrices et d'aider à différencier leurs activités. » Les mises à jour fiscales, juridiques et réglementaires ne sont que l'une des fonctionnalités de soutien offertes par Rimini Street sans frais supplémentaires pour les clients. Le Brésil possède l'un des systèmes fiscaux les plus complexes au monde, et Rimini Street offre des mises à jour rapides et efficaces pour assurer la conformité. Au Brésil, la Société s'appuie sur le Sistema Público de Escrituração Digital (SPED), ou Système public de comptabilité numérique, et respecte en tous points les normes en matière de fiscalité et de dossiers d'impôts. Rimini Street fournit également des mises à jour pour Nota Fiscal Eletrônica (NFe) ; Escrituração Contábil Digital (ECD) ; Escrituração Fiscal Digital (EFD) ; Escrituração Contábil Fiscal (ECF) ; Notas Técnicas et E-Social, entre autres. À l'échelle mondiale, Rimini Street a fourni plus de 125 000 mises à jour fiscales, juridiques et réglementaires à ses clients à ce jour et la Société propose des produits de haute qualité et précis grâce à une combinaison innovante de technologie fiscale, juridique et réglementaire en instance de brevet, de méthodologie éprouvée et de processus de développement certifiés ISO 9001. Avant de conclure un accord avec Rimini Street, le directeur informatique Mohamed Nassif, un professionnel de l'informatique expérimenté et chevronné qui a dirigé de multiples déploiements de systèmes SAP, JD Edwards et MICROSIGA auprès de sociétés travaillant dans différents segments de l'industrie, tels que BMC-Hyundai, Andrade Gutierrez, Penske Logistics do Brasil, Suzano and Bahia Sul Papel e Celulose et Casas Pernambucanas, a parlé à un certain nombre de clients de Rimini Street au Brésil et leur a rendu visite. À titre d'exemple, M. Nassif a visité une importante société brésilienne du secteur des centres d'appels où le DSI a plusieurs fois fait appel à Rimini Street pour que M. Nassif et son équipe puissent expérimenter de première main le processus de soutien. En conséquence, Nassif a pu valider la qualité du service de Rimini Street et le soutien attentif fourni par l'équipe locale d'ingénieurs experts de la Société au Brésil, ainsi que les temps de réponse rapide. « Rimini Street emploie une équipe locale et experte de professionnels spécialisés dans le soutien, le développement et la recherche fiscale, juridique et réglementaire au Brésil pour s'assurer de la bonne conformité des clients », a déclaré Edenize Maron, directeur général pour l'Amérique latine chez Rimini Street. « La Société a réalisé d'importants investissements au Brésil et s'est engagée à fournir un service de qualité supérieure avec un support ultra-réactif, et un temps de réponse de 15 minutes ou moins pour les cas critiques de Priorité 1. Rimini Street continue d'aider les entreprises du monde entier à réaliser des économies par rapport aux honoraires de maintenance proposés par les vendeurs, afin que ces entreprises puissent utiliser ces économies pour financer des programmes novateurs soutenant la croissance de leurs activités. Rimini Street est le leader mondial en prestation de services de soutien indépendants pour les logiciels d’entreprise. Depuis 2005, la société redéfinit les services de soutien aux entreprises avec un programme primé novateur permettant aux titulaires de licences Oracle et SAP d’économiser jusqu’à 90 % du total de leurs coûts de soutien. Les clients peuvent continuer à utiliser leur version logicielle actuelle, sans qu’il soit nécessaire d’exécuter de mise à niveau pendant au moins 15 ans. Près de 1 900 organisations internationales du classement Fortune 500, du marché intermédiaire et du secteur public et d'autres organisations d’une vaste gamme de secteurs ont choisi Rimini Street comme fournisseur de services de soutien indépendant et fiable. Pour en savoir plus, consultez le site http://www.riministreet.com, suivez @riministreet sur Twitter et rejoignez Rimini Street sur Facebook et LinkedIn. Ce communiqué de presse peut contenir des déclarations prévisionnelles. Les termes, tels que « croire », « pouvoir », « projeter », « estimer », « continuer », « anticiper », « avoir l’intention de », « prévoir », « s’attendre à », l’emploi du futur et autres expressions similaires, ont pour objectif de permettre d’identifier les déclarations prévisionnelles. Ces déclarations prévisionnelles sont soumises à des risques et à des incertitudes, et sont fondées sur diverses hypothèses. Si ces risques se matérialisaient ou si nos hypothèses s’avéraient incorrectes, les résultats réels pourraient différer sensiblement des résultats sous-entendus par les présentes déclarations prévisionnelles. Rimini Street ne s’engage aucunement à mettre à jour toute déclaration prévisionnelle ou information, lesquelles ne valent qu’à la date du présent communiqué de presse. Rimini Street et le logo Rimini Street sont des marques commerciales de Rimini Street, Inc. Tous les autres noms de produits et de sociétés peuvent constituer des marques commerciales appartenant à leurs propriétaires respectifs. Copyright © 2017. Tous droits réservés.


Experiments were performed in accordance with the regulations of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of California, San Diego. We used the following mouse lines: VGAT–ChR2–EYFP31 (Jackson Labs #014548), PV–Cre32 (Jackson Labs #008069), Gad2–Cre33 (Jackson Labs #010802) and Hoxd10–GFP34 (MMRRC #032065-UCD). Mice were bred by crossing homozygous VGAT–ChR2–EYFP, PV–Cre or Gad2–Cre males (all lines with a C57BL/6 background) with wild-type ICR females or homozygous Hoxd10–GFP females (ICR background) to C57BL/6 males. Mice were housed in a vivarium with a reversed light cycle (12 h day–12 h night). Mice of both genders were used for experiments at postnatal ages of 2–6 months. We used the following adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and canine adenovirus (CAV2): For the Cre recombinase (Cre)-dependent expression of Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2)35, 36: AAV2/9.CAGGS.Flex.ChR2.tdTomato.SV40 (Addgene 18917; UPenn Vector Core). For the Cre-dependent expression of tdTomato: AAV2/1.CAG.Flex.tdTomato.WPRE.bGH (Allen Institute 864; UPenn Vector Core). For the expression of Cre: AAV2/9.hSyn.HI.eGFP-Cre.WPRE.SV40 (UPenn Vector Core). For Cre-dependent expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR)37: AAV2/1.Flex.DTR.GFP (Jessell laboratory; produced at UNC Vector Core). AAV2/9.CAGGS.Flex.ChR2.tdTomato.SV40 was bilaterally injected into the visual cortex of newborn PV–Cre or Gad2–Cre pups (postnatal day (P) 0–2). The virus was loaded into a bevelled glass micropipette (tip diameter 20–40 μm) mounted on a Nanoject II (Drummond) attached to a micromanipulator. Pups were anaesthetized by hypothermia and secured in a molded platform. In each hemisphere the virus was injected at two sites along the medial–lateral axis of the visual cortex. At each site we made three bolus injections of 28 nl. Each were at three different depths between 300 and 600 μm. Protein expression was verified by epi-fluorescent illumination through a dissection microscope (Leica MZ10F). Experiments were performed on animals with expression over the entire extent of visual cortex. AAV2/9.hSyn.HI.EGFP-Cre.WPRE.SV40 and AAV2/9.CAGGS.Flex.ChR2.tdTomato were mixed in 1:20 ratio. The mixture was injected into the visual cortex of newborn C57BL/6 pups (as described above). Protein expression was verified by epi-fluorescent illumination. Adult Hoxd10–GFP mice were anaesthetized with ~2% isoflurane (vol/vol) in O . The depth of anaesthesia was monitored with the toe-pinch response. The eyes were protected from drying by artificial tears. We cut open the scalp and thinned the skull to create a window of ~300–500 μm diameter. The remaining layer of bone in the window was thin enough to allow the penetration of the beveled glass pipette. A bolus of retrograde fluorescent microspheres (RetroBeads, Lumafluor Inc.) or CAV2.Cre virus (40 nl RetroBeads or 20 nl CAV2 virus) was injected into the NOT-DTN (coordinates (anteroposterior axis (AP) relative to bregma; mediolateral axis (ML) relative to the midline): AP: −1,260 μm; ML: 3,080 μm; depth: 1,960 μm; coordinates were adjusted based on the distance between bregma and lambda on mouse skull) using an UltraMicroPump (UMP3, WPI). The wound was sutured with a few stitches of 6-0 suture silk (Fisher Scientific NC9134710). Mice were perfused 3 days after the retrobead injection or 2 weeks after the CAV2 injection. AAV2/1.Flex.DTR.GFP was bilaterally injected into the visual cortex of VGAT–ChR2–EYFP pups between P0 and P2. CAV2.Cre virus was subsequently stereotactically injected into the NOT-DTN (same coordinates as above) bilaterally in mice of 2–6 months of age. Three to four weeks later we injected diphtheria toxin (DT 40 ng/g) intraperitoneally three times on alternate days. The OKR was assessed 11 or 12 days after the first diphtheria toxin injection. In control experiments, diphtheria toxin was replaced with PBS or diphtheria toxin was injected into mice that had not been infected with AAV2/1.Flex.DTR.GFP. Mice were implanted with a T-shaped head bar for head fixation. Mice were anaesthetized using ~2% isoflurane. The scalp and fascia were removed and a metal head bar was mounted over the midline using dental cement (Ortho-Jet powder; Lang Dental) mixed with black paint (iron oxide). We created a cranial window of ~3 × 3 mm (1.5–4.5 mm lateral to midline and 2.3–5.2 mm posterior to bregma) over the visual cortex on each hemisphere by gently thinning the skull until it appeared transparent when wetted by saline solution. The window was then covered with a thin layer of crazy glue. Following the surgery animals were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 mg/kg buprenorphine and allowed to recover in their home cage for at least 1 week. Several days before the test, mice were familiarized with head fixation in the recording setup. No visual stimulation was given. The horizontal OKR was elicited by a ‘virtual drum’ system39. Three computer LED monitors (Viewsonic VX2450wm-LED, 60-Hz refresh rate, gamma-corrected) were mounted orthogonally to each other to form a square enclosure that covered ~270° of visual field along the azimuth. The mouse head was immobilized at the centre of the enclosure with the nasal and temporal corners of the eye leveled. Visual stimuli were generated with Psychophysics Toolbox 3 running in Matlab (Mathworks). To ensure synchronized updating across multiple monitors we used AMD Eyefinity Technology (ATI FirePro V4800). The monitors displayed a vertical sinusoidal grating whose period (spacing between stripes) was adjusted throughout the azimuthal plane such that the projection of the grating on the eye had constant spatial frequency. In other words, the spatial frequency of the grating was perceived as constant throughout the visual field, as if the grating was drifting along the surface of a virtual drum. The dependence of pixel brightness on monitor coordinates was obtained by using this equation: B = L + L × C × sin(2π × x  × SF), where B is the brightness of pixels, L is the luminance in cd/m2, C is the contrast, SF is the spatial frequency and x is the azimuth of pixels in degrees, which is transformed from the Cartesian coordinates of the monitor into the cylindrical coordinates of the virtual drum by the following formula: x  = tan−1(x /D), where x is the horizontal pixel position in Cartesian coordinates and D is the distance from the centre of the monitors to the eye (Extended Data Fig. 1a). The grating drifted clockwise or counterclockwise in an oscillatory manner7, 11 (oscillation amplitude ± 5°; grating spatial frequency: 0.04–0.45 cpd; oscillation frequency 0.2–1 Hz, corresponding to a peak velocity of the stimulus of 6.28–31.4° s−1; contrast: 80%; mean luminance: 40 cd/m2). We chose the duration of the visual stimulus to allow the presentation of an integral number of oscillatory cycles (10 or 15 s for OKR test only; 7.5 s for simultaneous NOT-DTN electrophysiology and OKR test). Trials were spaced by an inter-stimulation interval of at least 8 s. The inter-stimulation interval following trials of cortical silencing was increased to 20 s. To measure the oscillation frequency tuning, spatial frequency was kept constant at 0.08 cpd; to measure the spatial frequency tuning oscillation, the frequency was kept at 0.4 Hz. To obtain the transfer function, we varied the spatial frequency of the visual stimulus rather than the oscillation frequency because OKR peak velocity is strongly modulated by spatial frequency and much less so by the oscillation frequency (consistent with previous observations7, 40; Extended Data Fig. 9a). The spatial frequency was varied from 0.04 to 0.45 cpd, and the oscillation frequency was kept constant at 0.4 Hz. To evaluate the directional preference of NOT-DTN neurons, one monitor was positioned 20 cm from the eye contralateral to the side of recording. Full-field sinusoidal drifting gratings (oscillation frequency: 1 Hz; spatial frequency: 0.08 cpd; mean luminance: 50 cd/m2; contrast: 100%) were used. Gratings were randomly presented at 12 equally spaced positions. The duration of the visual stimulus was 2 s and the inter-trial interval was 2.2 s. To visualize NOT-DTN with c-Fos immunostaining (c-Fos is an immediate early gene expressed in response to neuronal activity), OKR was elicited by drum stimulation of various spatial frequencies (0.04–0.45 cpd) with oscillation frequency 0.4 Hz, contrast 100% and luminance 50 cd/m2. Trials of oscillatory motion lasted for 15 s and were followed by an inter-trial interval of 8 s. The whole stimulation procedure took 60 min. The movement of the right eye was monitored through a high speed infrared (IR) camera (Imperx IPX-VGA 210; 100 Hz). The camera captured the reflection of the eye on an IR mirror (transparent to visible light, Edmund Optics #64-471) under the control of custom labview software and a frame grabber (National Instrument PCIe-1427). The pupil was identified online by thresholding pixel values or post hoc by combining thresholding and morphology operation and its profile was fitted with an ellipse to determine the centre. The eye position was measured by computing the distance between the pupil centre and the corneal reflection of a reference IR LED placed along the optical axis of the camera. To calibrate the measurement of the eye position, the camera and the reference IR LED were moved along a circumference centred on the image of the eye by ± 10° (Extended Data Fig. 1b). Three mouse lines (VGAT–ChR2–EYFP, PV–Cre and Gad2–Cre) were used in experiments involving optogenetic silencing of the visual cortex. They are equally efficient in silencing activity of visual cortex and interchangeable. VGAT–ChR2–EYFP mice were used in most of the silencing experiments, except in experiments illustrated in Extended Data Fig. 2a (PV–Cre line) and Extended Data Fig. 3b (all 3 lines). To photostimulate ChR2-expressing cortical inhibitory neurons in vivo, a 470-nm blue fibre-coupled LED (1 mm diameter, Doric Lenses) was placed ~5–10 mm above the cranial windows of each hemisphere. We restricted the illumination to the tissue under the cranial window by covering neighbouring areas with dental cement. An opaque shield of black clay prevented LED light from directly reaching the eyes. The total light power out of the LED fibre was 15–20 mW. Trials were alternated between visual stimulus alone and visual stimulus plus LED. The LED was turned on during the whole period of visual stimulation and turned off by ramping down the power over 0.5 s to limit rebound activation of the visual cortex. To photostimulate cortical input to the NOT-DTN in vivo, blue light illuminated only the visual cortex ipsilateral to the NOT-DTN where the probe was inserted. We dissected out the tissue overlying the horizontal semicircular canal in mice under ~2% isoflurane anaesthesia. A small hole was drilled in the canal with a miniature Busch Bur (0.25 mm, Gesswein) and the endolymph was partially drained. The horizontal semicircular canal was plugged with bone wax (FST 19009-00) to seal the opening and reduce the flow of the endolymph within the canal. The wound was sutured with a few stitches of 6/0 suture. Mice recovered for two days in their home cages before being tested for OKR. Sham lesions were done in the same way except that no hole was drilled and no wax was introduced in the semicircular canal. OKR gain (spatial frequency: 0.1 cpd; oscillation frequency: 0.4 Hz; contrast: 100%; mean luminance: 35 cd/m2) was assessed 1 day before and 1 h before OKR training. Two sessions (12 min) were used to minimize the effect of visual stimulation during OKR evaluation on OKR gain. During continuous OKR stimulation, a drum of the same visual parameters ran continuously for 38 min. OKR gain was then assessed again 12 min after OKR stimulation was finished. Mice were implanted with a T-shaped head bar for head fixation in the same way as described above for the OKR assessment, except that the procedure was done stereotactically with the help of an inclinometer (Digi-Key electronics 551-1002-1-ND). The inclinometer allowed us to calibrate the inclination of the two axis of the T bar relative to the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) axes of the skull before fixing it to the skull with dental cement. Three reference points with known coordinates were marked on the mouse skull because both bregma and lambda were inevitably masked by the dental cement holding the head bar. The head post on the recording rig was also calibrated with the same inclinometer to ensure that the recording probes were in register with the skull. Recordings from awake animals were performed using a method similar to that described previously43. One to two weeks before recording, mice were familiarized with head fixation within the recording setup over the course of two to four 50-min sessions. One day before recording, mice were anaesthetized with ~2% isoflurane. Whiskers and eyelashes contralateral to the recording side were trimmed to prevent interference with infrared video-oculography. To access the NOT-DTN we made an elongated, anteroposteriorly oriented craniotomy (~0.4 × 0.8 mm) around the coordinates of −3 mm (anteroposterior) and 1.3 mm (mediolateral). The coordinates were adjusted based on the distance between bregma and lambda on mouse skull. The craniotomy was then covered by Kwik-Cast Sealant (WPI). On the day of recording, after peeling off the Kwik-Cast cover, a drop of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF; in mM, 140 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 2.5 CaCl , 1.3 MgSO , 1.0 NaH PO , 20 HEPES and 11 glucose, pH 7.4) was placed in the well of the craniotomy to keep the exposed brain moist. A 16-channel linear silicon probe (NeuroNexus a1x16-5mm-25-177) mounted on a manipulator (Luigs &Neumann) was slowly advanced into the brain to a depth of 2,000–2,200 μm. The occurrence of direction modulated activity upon visual stimulation was used to identify the NOT-DTN (see data analysis below). The probe was stained by lipophilic DiI to label the recording track for post hoc verification of successful targeting of the NOT-DTN. Recordings were not started until 20 min after insertion of the probe into the NOT-DTN. Signals were amplified 400-fold, band-pass filtered (0.3–5,000 Hz, with the presence of a notch filter) with an extracellular amplifier (A-M Systems 3600) and digitized at 32 kHz (National Instrument PCIe-6259) with custom-written software in Matlab. Raw data were stored on a computer hard drive for offline analysis. At the end of the recording session, brains were fixed by transcardial perfusion of 4% paraformaldehyde for histological analysis. Recordings from the superior colliculus or vLGN were done in the same way except that the coordinates of the craniotomy were 3.5 mm (anteroposterior) and 1 mm (mediolateral) for the superior colliculus and 2.5 mm (anteroposterior) and 2.3 mm (mediolateral) for the vLGN. For recordings from anaesthetized mice we used the same procedures as described above except that (1) the familiarization step was omitted and the craniotomy was performed immediately before recording; (2) animals were anaesthetized with urethane (1.2 g/kg, intraperitoneal) and given the sedative chlorprothixene (0.05 ml of 4 mg/ml, intramuscular), as previously described44; (3) body temperature was maintained at 37 °C using a feedback-controlled heating pad (FHC 40-90-8D); (4) a uniform layer of silicone oil was applied to the eyes to prevent drying; and (5) lactated Ringer’s solution was administrated at 3 ml/kg/h to prevent dehydration. Mice at postnatal days 15–30 were anaesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine and xylazine (100 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively), perfused transcardially with cold (0–4 °C) slice cutting solution ((in mM) 80 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.3 NaH PO , 26 NaHCO , 20 d-glucose, 75 sucrose, 0.5 sodium ascorbate, 4 MgCl and 0.5 CaCl , 315 mOsm, pH 7.4, saturated with 95% O2/5% CO ) and decapitated. Brains were sectioned into coronal slices of 300–400 μm in cold cutting solution with a Super Microslicer Zero1 (D.S.K.). Slices containing the NOT-DTN were incubated in a submerged chamber at 34 °C for 30 min and then at room temperature (~21 °C) until used for recordings. During the whole procedure, the cutting solution was bubbled with 95% O /5% CO . Whole-cell recordings were done in ACSF (in mM: 119 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.3 NaH PO , 26 NaHCO , 20 d-glucose, 0.5 sodium ascorbate, 4 MgCl , 2.5 CaCl , 300 mOsm, pH 7.4, saturated with 95% O /5% CO ). The ACSF was warmed to ~30 °C and perfused at 3 ml/min. NOT-DTN neurons were visualized with DIC infrared video-microscopy under a water immersion objective (40×, 0.8 NA) on an upright microscope (Olympus BX51WI) with an IR CCD camera (Till Photonics VX44). Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were performed with patch pipettes (borosilicate glass; Sutter Instruments) using a caesium-based internal solution ((in mM) 115 CsMeSO , 1.5 MgCl , 10 HEPES, 0.3 Na GTP, 4 MgATP, 10 Na -phosphocreatine, 1 EGTA, 2 QX-314-Cl, 10 BAPTA-tetracesium, 0.5% biocytin, 295 mOsm, pH 7.35). AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs were recorded at the reversal potential for IPSCs (~−65 mV) and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs were recorded at +40 mV in the presence of the GABA receptor antagonist gabazine (5 μM, Tocris 1262) and the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (10 μM, Tocris 1044). To verify monosynaptic connectivity, we isolated NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs in the presence of NBQX and high Mg2+ concentration (4 mM) or monosynaptic AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs by a modified sCRACM approach45 in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX; 1 μM, Tocris 1069), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 1.5 mM, Abcam ab120122) and tetraethylammonium (TEA; 1.5 mM, ab120275). EPSCs were acquired and filtered at 4 kHz with a Multiclamp 700B amplifier, and digitized with a Digidata 1440A at 10 kHz under the control of Clampex 10.2 (Molecular Devices). Data were analysed offline with Clampfit 10.2 (Molecular Device). To photostimulate ChR2-expressing cortico-fugal axons, we delivered blue light using a collimated LED (470 nm) and a T-Cube LED Driver (Thorlabs) through the fluorescence illuminator port and the 40× objective. Light pulses of 10 ms and 5.5 mW/mm2 were given with a 20 s inter-stimulus interval. After recordings, slices were fixed by 4% paraformaldehyde for histology. After implanting the head bar, under anaesthesia (2% isoflurane), we dissected out part of the skull and removed, by aspiration, the area of the cortex and hippocampus overlaying the NOT-DTN. The identity of the NOT-DTN was assessed visually by its anatomy and stereotactic coordinates and verified electrophysiologically (see data analysis below). After the surgery, the mice were head-fixed and isoflurane was withdrawn. For at least the next 45 min, OKR performance and NOT-DTN activity were recorded. The GABA receptor agonist muscimol (0.2–1 mM in ACSF) was applied on top of the NOT-DTN. It took ~30 min for muscimol to silence the NOT-DTN, as assessed electrophysiologically. Pupillary dilation, as a side effect of silencing the olivary pretectal nucleus, was counteracted by topical application of 2% pilocarpine hydrochloride (agonist of muscarinic receptor, Tocris 0694) in saline to both eyes. Mice were perfused transcardially first with phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) and then with 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS (pH 7.4) under anaesthesia (ketamine 100 mg/kg and xylazine10 mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection). Brains were removed from the skull, post-fixed overnight in 4% paraformaldehyde and then immersed in 30% sucrose in PBS until they sank. Brains were subsequently coronally sectioned (40–60 μm sections) with a sliding microtome (Thermo Scientific HM450). Slices were incubated in blocking buffer (PBS, 5% goat serum (Life Technologies 16210-072), 1% Triton X-100) at room temperature for 2 h and then incubated with primary antibodies in blocking buffer at 4 °C overnight. The following primary antibodies were used: rabbit anti-GFP (1:1,000, Life Technologies A6455) and rabbit anti-c-Fos (1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology sc-52). The slices were washed three times with blocking buffer for 30 min each and then incubated with secondary antibodies conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488, 594 or 633 (1:800, Life Technologies A11008, A11012 or A21070, respectively) in blocking buffer for 2 h at room temperature. After being washed three times with blocking buffer for 10 min each, slices were mounted in Vectashield mounting medium containing DAPI (Vector Laboratories H1500). For c-Fos immunostaining, 90 min after the beginning of OKR stimulation (30 min after 60-min OKR simulation was finished), animals were perfused transcardially first with PBS and then with 4% paraformaldehyde in PBS. Brains were coronally sectioned into slices of 40 μm. To reveal the morphology of NOT-DTN neurons filled with biocytin, following fixation and blocking (see above), we incubated the slices with streptavidin conjugated with Alexa Fluor 647 (1:500, Life Technologies s32357) in blocking buffer overnight and then washed the slices three times. Images were acquired on a Leica SP5 confocal microscope, a Zeiss Axio Imager A1 epifluorescence microscope or an Olympus MVX10 stereoscope, and processed using ImageJ (National Institutes of Health). Analysis of eye tracking and in vivo electrophysiology was performed using custom-written codes in Matlab. Analysis of in vitro electrophysiology was done with Clampfit 10.2 (Molecular Devices). Saccade-like fast eye movements were removed from the recorded eye trajectory before computing OKR amplitude (Extended Data Fig. 1c). Saccades were detected as ‘spikes’ in the temporal derivative of the eye position (velocity) and replaced by linear interpolation. To derive the amplitude of the OKR we used the Fourier transform of the eye position as a function of time. The eye trajectories illustrated in this study are the averages of several cycles. The gain of the OKR was expressed as OKR gain = Amp /Amp , where Amp is the amplitude of eye movement and Amp the amplitude of drum movement. The OKR gain derived in the space domain is similar to that derived in the velocity domain (Extended Data Fig. 1f). In this study, we computed the gain in the space domain because deriving eye velocity from eye position introduces noise. Therefore, the OKR gain is 1 if the eye perfectly tracks the trajectory of the virtual drum and 0 if it does not track. The cortical contribution to the OKR gain is expressed as the percentage reduction in OKR gain caused by cortical silencing and calculated as ΔV (%) = (V − V )/V , where V and V are the values of the OKR gain measured under control conditions or during optogenetic cortical silencing, respectively. OKR potentiation is calculated as V / V , where V and V are the values of the OKR gain measured before and after vestibular lesion, respectively. The cortical contribution to OKR potentiation is expressed as PI = (ΔV − ΔV )/(ΔV − ΔV ), where ΔV and ΔV are the cortical contribution to the OKR gain before and after vestibular lesioning, respectively, and ΔV is the maximum possible cortical contribution to the OKR gain assuming that the entire amount of OKR potentiation depends on visual cortex. ΔV  = (V − V )/V . Hence PI is 1 if the entire amount of OKR potentiation depends on visual cortex and is 0 if the cortical contribution to OKR gain before vestibular lesion is the same as the cortical contribution to OKR gain after vestibular lesion (ΔV  = ΔV ) (Extended Data Fig. 3c, d). The cortical contribution to NOT-DTN activity is expressed as the cortical contribution to OKR gain but V and V are the firing rates of NOT-DTN neurons under control conditions or during optogenetic cortical silencing, respectively. Single units were isolated using spike-sorting Matlab codes, as described previously43. The raw extracellular signal was band-pass filtered between 0.5 and 10 kHz. Spiking events were detected with a threshold at 3.5 or 4 times the standard deviation of the filtered signal. Spike waveforms of four adjacent electrode sites were clustered using a k-means algorithm. After initial automated clustering, clusters were manually merged or split with a graphical user interface in Matlab. Unit isolation quality was assessed by considering refractory period violations and Fisher linear discriminant analysis. All units were assigned a depth according to the electrode sites at which their amplitudes were largest. Multi-unit spiking activity was defined as all spiking events exceeding the detection threshold after the removal of electrical noise or movement artefacts by the sorting algorithm. Individual spiking events were also assigned to one of the 16 recording sites according to where they showed the largest amplitude. For both single-unit activity and multi-unit activity, the visual response was computed as the mean firing rate during visual stimulation without baseline subtraction. Units recorded from visual cortex were assigned as regular-spiking neurons or fast-spiking putative inhibitory neurons based on the trough-to-peak times of spike waveforms43. A threshold of 0.4 ms was used to distinguish fast-spiking from regular-spiking units. The boundary of the NOT-DTN was determined by the appearance of a temporonasal directional bias in the multi-unit response to the visual stimulus. The preferred direction of an isolated NOT-DTN unit was determined by summing response vectors of 12 evenly spaced directions. The direction selectivity index (DSI) was calculated along the sampled orientation axis closest to the preferred direction according to the formula DSI = (R − R )/(R + R ), where R is the response at the preferred direction and R is the response at the opposite direction. The DSI of the response evoked by oscillatory drum movement was calculated as DSI = (R − R )/(R + R ), where R is the response during the temporonasal phase of drum movement and R is the response during the nasotemporal phase. The onset latency of optogenetically evoked activity of NOT-DTN neurons was determined as the time lag between the beginning of the LED illumination and the time point at which the firing rate reached three times the standard deviation of spontaneous activity. Similarly, the onset latency of optogenetically evoked EPSCs in NOT-DTN neurons was determined as the time lag between the beginning of the LED illumination and the time point at which the EPSC amplitude reached three times the standard deviation of baseline noise. Trial-by-trial jitter of optogenetically evoked EPSCs was calculated as the standard deviation of the onset latency. Analysis of c-Fos immunohistochemistry was performed with ImageJ (National Institutes of Health). c-Fos-positive cells were identified as continuous pixels after thresholding and counted automatically. To quantify the extent of overlap between arborization of GFP-expressing RGC axons and c-Fos expression in the NOT-DTN, their boundaries were manually drawn and the overlap coefficient r was calculated as where S1 is 1 if pixel i is within the domain of RGC axons, otherwise 0; and S2 is 1 if pixel i is within the domain of c-Fos immunohistochemistry, otherwise 0 (Extended Data Fig. 5c). For each animal, NOT-DTN multiunit activity was normalized to the average firing rate evoked by optimal spatial frequency. Data points of transfer functions from all animals were pooled, binned and averaged. The vectors (arrows in Extended Data Fig. 9g–i) start at the centre of mass of data points obtained at a given spatial frequency under control conditions (grey) and end at the centre of mass of data points obtained at the same spatial frequency during cortical silencing trials (blue). The x-axis value of the centre of mass is the NOT-DTN multiunit firing rate averaged over trials obtained at a given spatial frequency, normalized by the average firing rate evoked by the best spatial frequency. The y-axis value of the centre of mass is the average OKR gain obtained during the same trials. All samples or animals were included in the analysis except for the following exclusions: (1) in the analysis of OKR gain, trials in which video-oculography failed as a result of eye blinking or tears were excluded from analysis; (2) in Fig. 1g, h, one mouse was excluded from the analysis because its value of OKR potentiation was less than the threshold of 0.1; (3) in Fig. 3, two mice were excluded from the analysis because they were sick and lost a lot in body weight during experiments; (4) in Figs. 4, 5, one mouse was excluded because the identification of NOT-DTN failed; and (5) in statistics of the activities of superior colliculus and vLGN, recordings which were identified post hoc as missing the target structures were excluded from the analysis. These criteria were pre-established. Statistical analyses were done using statistics toolbox in Matlab. All data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. unless otherwise noted. Statistical significance was assessed using paired or unpaired t-tests and further confirmed with nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test or Wilcoxon rank sum test unless otherwise noted. Estimated sample sizes were retrospectively determined to achieve 80% power to detect expected effect sizes using Matlab. We did not intentionally select particular mice for treatment group or control group. No blinding was used. Owing to the limited sample size, the assumption of normal distribution was not tested. Nonparametric tests were used to confirm statistical significances reported by paired or unpaired t-tests. Thus, the conclusions of statistical tests were validated regardless of whether the data were normally distributed. The variance was not compared between groups. In t-tests, we assumed that samples were from distributions of unknown and unequal variances. The experiments were not randomized.


News Article | December 16, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

密苏里州堪萨斯城和澳大利亚墨尔本--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Chandra Asri Petrochemical has selected DSI's Digital Supply Chain Platform to reduce costs and increase efficiency in manufacturing and warehouse operations.


News Article | December 15, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

KANSAS CITY, Mo. & MELBOURNE, Australia--(BUSINESS WIRE)--DSI announced today that PT Chandra Asri Petrochemical Tbk has selected DSI’s Digital Supply Chain Platform™ to automate the company’s manufacturing and warehouse operations. PT Chandra Asri Petrochemical Tbk (hereafter: Chandra Asri) is the largest integrated petrochemical company in Indonesia. The company operates Indonesia’s only world-scale naphtha cracker, a system used to create the petrochemicals required to manufacture a wide array of everyday products. The Chandra Asri plant is strategically located in the port of Ciwandan in Cilegon, Banten province, providing convenient access to key customers. To support growing needs in the supply chain, Chandra Asri required a proven mobile-first solution that could be personalized to fit their unique business requirements. Chandra Asri identified several points in the supply chain as opportunities for improved efficiency and accuracy. To accomplish those improvements, the company required a solution to support all inbound and outbound logistics on any mobile device. Chandra Asri chose DSI for its pre-built, certified integration to SAP as well as its suite of configurable mobile-first supply chain apps. “As Chandra Asri grows, we need to invest in an advanced mobile-first enterprise solution that connects real-time to any system of record,” says Adhi Rachman, IT Head at Chandra Asri. Adhi continues, “We conducted an in-depth evaluation of all the alternative solutions and it quickly became obvious DSI offers the most comprehensive solution fully integrated with our SAP instance. In addition, DSI’s reputation for partnering with SAP customers in the Asia Pac region made DSI the evident choice.” “DSI’s suite of digital supply chain solutions is ideal for resources companies such as Chandra Asri that want to achieve immediate cost reductions and efficiency gains. And, because DSI provides a single platform to harness technologies from analytics to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Chandra Asri has a solution to enable the digital transformation of their supply chain,” says Mark Goode, Chief Revenue Officer, DSI. “DSI’s Digital Supply Chain Platform delivers the visibility and accuracy critical to staying competitive in today’s global resources markets.” DSI is the Digital Supply Chain Platform™ company that creates mobile-first and cloud supply chain solutions for the digital economy. Visit www.dsiglobal.com to learn more. Chandra Asri, a subsidiary of PT Barito Pacific Tbk as the majority shareholders, is Indonesia’s largest integrated petrochemical company producing olefins and polyolefins. Chandra Asri incorporates state-of-the-art technologies and supporting facilities located in Cilegon and Serang of Banten Province. Chandra Asri is the only producer who operates a naphtha cracker, and is the sole domestic producer of ethylene, styrene monomer and butadiene. In addition, Chandra Asri is also the largest polypropylene producer in Indonesia. Chandra Asri produces plastic raw materials and chemicals used for packaging products, pipes, automotive, electronics, etc. For more information, please visit www.chandra-asri.com.


News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

Patented Technology Enables DSi Mobile Intercept Service to Analyze ID Wear for Authentication and Document Tracking, Streamlining Account Opening and Transaction Verification NOVATO, CA--(Marketwired - November 02, 2016) - DSi (Dragnet Solutions®, Inc.), a leading provider of data-driven insight services for financial organizations, today announced that it has been issued U.S. Patent No. 9,483,629 for "Document Authentication Based On Expected Wear." The patent covers a system that enables authentication based on a physical document, ID, photograph, barcode or magnetic stripe. Specifically, an authentication service is described that utilizes characteristics of the item, data or token that represents the item or data to authenticate a user. The characteristics of the item or data may be processed based partially on the expected wear or degree of difference of the item, data or token from the last time it was presented. "This patent demonstrates our Mobile Intercept service's unique approach to document authentication based on machine learning," said Greg Coté, CEO of Dragnet Solutions, Inc. "Our real-time document authentication and identity verification platform adapts to real world conditions, such as the wear or change that identity documents experience through everyday handling or the passage of time. Recognizing that any reliable document authentication solution would need to account for the real-world conditions of those documents, we developed this unique approach to analyzing driver licenses and other identity documents that consumers present when authenticating themselves. To develop this technology, we leveraged our unique role as the physical custodian of fraudulent identity documents that had been confiscated by banks. Our real-time Web services solve the document authentication and account-screening problems that financial institutions, retailers and non-bank lenders are facing every day." "Our Mobile Intercept Web service is designed to adapt and learn what identity documents should look like, including their security features and other identifying features," Coté continued. "Whether it's used at account opening to authenticate a new account holder or for verifying a returning customer via the unique token assigned by the platform to a specific ID, Mobile Intercept ensures a safe, frictionless consumer experience that will help organizations accelerate the adoption of mobile financial services." To learn more about Mobile Intercept or to request a demo, please contact sales@dragnetsolutions.com. DSi (Dragnet Solutions, Inc.) is a leading provider of data-driven insight services that enable financial organizations to reach new markets, open new channels, and safely grow profitable accounts. DSI Accelerated Insight℠ is a real-time account screening service that helps organizations confidently say yes to more qualified applicants, including those with limited financial histories. Built on DSi's proprietary discovery system, Accelerated Insight provides a fast, web-based interface that enables organizations to better differentiate customers, grow revenues, prevent fraud, and comply with KYC/CIP, Red Flags, and OFAC. DSi Mobile Intercept℠ is a real-time document authentication and auto-form-fill service that enables mobile users to authenticate themselves with identity documents such as driver's licenses, streamlines account opening and transaction verification, and delivers a fast, frictionless customer experience for mobile users. DSi is privately held and based in Novato, CA, north of Silicon Valley. For more information, please visit www.dragnetsolutions.com. Dragnet Solutions is a registered trademark and Accelerated Insight, Intercept, ad Mobile Intercept are service marks of Dragnet Solutions, Inc. Other names may be trademarks of their respective holders.


Kansas City, Mo. – DSI®, the Mobile Supply Chain Company™, today announced it has acquired Kansas City-based mobile application development solution provider RareWire. The acquisition underscores DSI’s commitment to delivering industry-leading mobile application user experiences. “RareWire is a strategic addition to DSI’s portfolio of mobility solutions,” said Matt McGraw, President and CEO, DSI. “This acquisition strengthens our ability to deliver superior consumer-quality mobile experiences that are highly competitive with any available in the market.” RareWire’s functionality complements DSI’s existing integrated development environment (IDE), Application Studio. The combination of DSI’s robust mobile platform and suite of mobility solutions, together with the RareWire application framework, allows user experience (UX) designers and Web developers to create rich user experiences while maintaining the full manageability, security and rapid development approach of today’s DSI mobile applications. “The addition of RareWire’s technology to DSI’s industry leading mobile platform takes it to a whole other level,” said Kirk Hasenzahl, President, RareWire. “As a tech entrepreneur in Kansas City, this is a dream scenario for us.  For a company like DSI, with its deep roots and history in Kansas City to be the company that acquires us, we couldn’t have written out a better scenario.  We can be a part of DSI’s global presence and existing product portfolio and expand upon the capability to enable companies to quickly and easily design and deploy the highest quality apps.” DSI will offer RareWire’s functionality as an integrated extension of DSI’s flagship software product, its Mobile Enterprise Platform. Today’s digital economy demands end-to-end visibility and execution across the extended supply chain. As the Mobile Supply Chain Company™, DSI® equips companies with a mobile platform and solution accelerators that integrate with existing enterprise systems to mobilize and optimize supply chain functions. Our solutions will also maximize your enterprise software investment while preserving data and process integrity across existing systems of record. Visit www.dsiglobal.com to learn more! Based in Kansas City, Missouri, RareWire is a software company that makes app ideas come to life. RareWire was the first ever tech startup to present at Kauffman Foundation’s now-global community 1 Million Cups, and went on to win numerous awards including the KC EDC Launch KC Entrepreneur of the Year in 2013.  With the innovative App Creation Studio and a team of talented designers and developers, RareWire produces powerful native iOS and Android apps for companies such as Black & Veatch, Boulevard Brewery, Forever 21, West Point, and hundreds of others around the globe.

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