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Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Shefazadeh M.K.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj | Sadeghzadeh B.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Eight statistical procedures including simple and combined variance, covariance analyses, coefficients of genetic variation, broad sense heritability and genetic advance, simple correlation, stepwise multiple linear regression and path analysis were used to study the relationship between grain yield of spring-type durum wheat and its components under semi-warm dryland condition of Iran. In order to identify relationship of some agronomical traits including yield components with grain yield of durum genotypes, 24 durum wheat genotypes were studied in RCBD design with 3 replications during 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 wheat growing season in Gachsaran Dryland Agricultural Research Station in the southwest of Iran. The results showed that the measured traits varied in genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations, heritability and genetic advance. Thousand kernel weight had positive significant correlation coefficient and great positive direct effect on grain yield, so it can be considered as indirect selection criteria for better yield in durum breeding programs. The spike number per square meter (S/m 2) through direct effect on grain yield and via thousand kernel weight can be defined as another indirect selection criterion. Meanwhile, decreasing and nullifying the negative indirect effect of kernel number per spike by decreasing seed weight should be considered in direct selection for thousand kernel weight and spike number per square meter. It can be concluded that differences among genotypes for days to heading, spike number per square meter, flag-leaf area, flag-leaf weight and grain yield were mainly controlled by environmental variance. The existence of high heritability for growth vigor, days to maturity, plant height, peduncle length, number of kernel per spike, flag leaf senescence, spike length, thousand kernel weight and test weight traits, indicated that effective selection can be done on these traits through breeding programs.


Ghaffaripour S.,University of Antwerp | Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Karimizadeh R.,Islamic Azad University | Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Turkish Journal of Field Crops | Year: 2011

Karyotypic studies were carried out on 16 hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, using squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining method. Chromosomal parameters examined were as follows: long arm (L), short arm (S), total chromosome length (TL), arm ratio (AR), r-value (S/L), form percentage of chromosome (%F), Chromosome volume, relative length of chromosome (%RL) and the number of satellites. ANOVA i indicated high significant differences for all karyotypic parameters. Genotypes tested were diploid (2n=2x=14). Satellite numbers were differed, ranging from 1 to 2 pairs and were differed in satellite length. The most chromatin length were detected in G9 (73.37 μm) while G15 demonstrated the least (30.85 μm). The types of chromosomes were determined as m in all genotypes, using Levan's chromosome nomenclature. Karyotypes were classified in 1A of Stebbin's classification. In addition to this, to test the karyotypic symmetry in more detail, other parameters, e.g. Romero-Zarco, total form percentage of karyotype (%TF), symmetry index (%S), coefficient of variation (%CV), dispersion index (DI) were also considered. For instance, in Romero-Zarco method, the A1 and A2 coefficients were 0.37 (G2) and 0.46 (G9), respectively. The first 3 principal component analysis PCA justified %94 of the total variations correlation determined for cytogenetical parameters. Cluster analysis was carried out for either chromosomal parameters classifying in 3 classes.


Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Shefazadeh M.K.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2011

This study was carried out to determine the yield performances of ten lentil genotypes across five locations in Iran for two years from 2003-2004 to 2004-2005 growing seasons. The goal of this research was to provide biologically meaningful interpretation of genotype-environment (GE) interactions and determine stable genotypes by using adjusted Additive Main effect and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model, environmental variance, b i regression coefficient and Wricke ecovalence. Reliability of genotypes was evaluated with I i index. AMMI ANOVA showed that environments, genotypes and GE interactions were highly significant (P<0.01). F GH1 and F GH2 tests were done for better control of Type-1 error rates. After use of adjusted AMMI, F GH1 and F GH2 indicated only first two IPCA axes of AMMI model were significant at the 0.01 probability level and reminded in the model. The b i regression coefficient showed genotypes 5 (Flip 92-12L) and 10 (Gachsaran) as the genotypes with the greatest stability because of their b value was significantly lower than 1, but genotype 9 (ILL 6199) possessed average stability due to its regression coefficient near to 1(b i = 1.02) and can be consider as well adapted genotype across the environments because good mean yield. Genotypes 8 (Flip 96-9L) and 9 (ILL 6199) with the lowest S 2 and W 2 i values (the most stable genotypes) were also within the highest yielding group, and thus performed as the widely adapted genotypes across the test environments in environmental variance and Wricke ecovalence stability methods. Reliability index of genotypes showed that genotypes 9(ILL 6199) and 1(Flip 96-7L) were the most reliable genotypes and were selected in this research. AMMI Stability Value (ASV) parameter of AMMI model correlated significantly and positively with the S 2 and W 2 i stability parameters (r = 0.851**, r = 0.818**, respectively), also two parameters S 2 and W 2 i showed high and positive correlation (r = 0.997***) and reliability index didn't show any correlation with other parameters. However, genotype 9 with high yield stability in evaluated stability methods, early maturity, high 1000-kernel weight and favorable plant height, was selected for stable and excel genotype in this research.


Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Sharifi P.,Islamic Azad University at Rasht | Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Shefazadeh M.K.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca | Year: 2012

Path and correlation analysis were executed to investigate the relationships between grain yield and other important yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes during two years (2009-2011) under supplemental irrigation and dryland conditions. Field experiments were performed in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Grain yield showed positive correlation with plant height and test weight under supplemental irrigation condition. The similar results were also revealed between grain yield and plant height, spike length, days to maturity, agronomic score and test weight in dryland environment. The grain yield of bread wheat in dryland condition depended on the effect of plant height, days to maturity, agronomic score and 1000 kernel weight, whereas in supplemental irrigation was mainly related to plant height, spike length, 1000 kernel weight and test weight. The influence of 1000 kernel weight on grain yield in both environments seems to cause from the fact that grain yield in wheat is frequently the sink limited, and for this reason, the 1000 kernel weight has been reported as a promising trait for increasing grain yield in wheat under different conditions. The nearly equal value of correlation and path coefficients of plant height and grain yield showed plant height had positive and direct effect on grain yield, in both conditions and suggesting a criteria trait for improving of grain yield. The results showed that genotype 12 (CS/TH.SC//3*PVN/3/MIRLO/BUC/4/MILAN/5/ TILHI) is a high yielding potential genotype in moisture limited conditions.


Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Sabaghnia N.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Shefazadeh M.K.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca | Year: 2012

Genotype × environment interaction (GEI) is of special interest in breeding programs to identify adaptation targets and test locations as well as to determine the most favorable genotypes. There are several nonparametric procedures used to interpret the GEI in multi-environmental trials. The purposes of this investigation were (i) to compare the effect of correction on Huehn's nonparametric stability statistics and (ii) to use nonparametric statistics for a GEI study on lentil. Nine improved lentil genotypes and one local cultivar were grown in 5 sites during two consecutive years. Results of the nonparametric analysis demonstrated both additive and crossover GEIs. According to uncorrected nonparametric statistics, genotypes G8 and G9 were the most stable and based on corrected nonparametric statistics of Huehn, genotypes G1, G2 and G10 were the most stable. In this investigation, mean of ranks (MR) and coefficient of variation of ranks (CV) with S(6) i were associated with high mean yield (within the dynamic concept of stability), but the other nonparametric statistics were not positively correlated with mean yield and were identified within a static concept of stability. Results also indicated that corrected nonparametric statistics were not suitable for simultaneous selection of mean yield and stability. Such an outcome could be used to delineate predictive, more rigorous recommendation strategies as well as to help define stability concepts to identify recommendations for lentil and other crops.


Pouralibaba H.R.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Pouralibaba H.R.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Rubiales D.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Fondevilla S.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis (Fol) is one of the most destructive diseases of lentil (Lens culinaris) worldwide. Although differences in in vitro growth pattern and aggressiveness have been observed in its populations, no pathotypes have been reported so far. The objective of this study was to check for the existence of differences in virulence in Fol and to develop a differential set of lentil accessions able to distinguish the virulence patterns. In a first step 28 lentil-resistant accessions reported elsewhere were inoculated with six isolates of Fol with different geographical origins, which showed a highly significant isolate × accession interaction. Based on their contrasting response, four accessions were selected as a putative differential set. In a second step we characterized the virulence pattern of 52 Fol isolates from Iran, Syria and Algeria using the differential set. This allowed the identification of seven different patterns of virulence, named as pathotypes 1 – 7. Pathotype 7 was virulent on all accessions studied. No correlation was found between the pathotype and the geographical origin of the isolates. This is the first report of the existence of pathotypes in Fol. Based on these results; lentil breeding strategies for resistance to the pathogen should be planned according to the prevalent pathotype present in the region. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Pouralibaba H.R.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Rubiales D.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Fondevilla S.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis is a major disease of lentil (Lens culinaris) worldwide. In this study, 196 lentil landraces were screened for resistance under controlled and field conditions. In order to characterize different levels of incomplete resistance, a detailed method was developed to evaluate resistance to this pathogen under controlled conditions assessing symptoms in each leaf separately at weekly intervals and calculating Area under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC). Consequently, selected accessions were screened in the field and the resistance confirmed. Twelve accession having good levels of resistance were identified. This article provides a new detailed method to evaluate incomplete resistance to the pathogen in lentil and identify new sources of resistance to the disease. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Abdipour M.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Drought is a wide spread problem seriously influencing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, mostly in dryland regions. This study was conducted to determine drought tolerance genotypes with superiority in different stressed environments. Eighteen bread wheat genotypes were tested in a randomized complete block design with four replications in two years (2006- 2007 and 2007-2008). Stress intensity in the first and second year were low (SI=0.336) and high (SI=0.604), respectively. Five drought resistance indices include mean productivity (MP), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress tolerance index (TOL), susceptible stress index (SSI) and stress tolerance index (STI) were applied on the basis of grain yield in dryland and supplemental irrigation conditions. Based on different drought indices, genotypes G1, G3 and G4 had the best rank with low standard deviation. The results indicated they have stable yield performance. Bi-plot display and cluster analysis cleared superiority of these genotypes in both years. Synthetic-derived materials had 2.6 to 18% higher yield than the best local check cultivars. The synthetic derived cultivars could perform well across all environments with better agronomic performance, especially for thousand kernel weight. Results showed MP, GMP and STI indices were more effective in identifying high yielding cultivars in diverse water scarcity.


Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Mohammadi M.,Islamic Azad University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

High temperature in terminal growth stages is a major stress of wheat productivity in South-west Iran, as well as in other Mediterranean environments and the long-term spring temperatures trend to increase. Determination of affecting factors or traits helps to improve the yield potential of wheat. The effects of heat stress during and post anthesis for physiologic, phenologic and agronomic traits was evaluated in ten bread wheat genotypes. The research was conducted under field condition in two different dates under less and more heated environments (two different sowing times). Also, source levels were manipulated through 50% spikelet removal at anthesis to evaluate cultivar source/sink limitations to kernel growth. The results depicted that grain yield, kernel number per spike and 1000 kernel weight were reduced by 24.1%, 9.2% and 23.7% in warmer environment, respectively. Hence, kernel weight was more suited for heat stress screening than other traits evaluated in this study. Thus, wheat genotypes that are able to maintain high individual kernel weight despite heat stress may possess a high level of heat tolerance. Furthermore, results indicated that the poor grain filling could mainly be attributed not to sink-limited conditions, but to source-limited conditions. © 2012 Academic Journals.


Mohammadi N.,Tarbiat Modares University | Puralibaba H.,Dryland Agriculture Research Institute | Goltapeh E.M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Ahari A.B.,University of Tabriz | Sardrood B.P.,Tarbiat Modares University
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2012

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis is the most important pathogen of lentil plants, and most areas under lentil cultivation are reported to have a fusarium wilt disease background. The plants are infected in the seedling stage and later stages of their development. Fusarium wilt disease, which has appeared at high incidence rates during recent years, has caused sharp drops in the yield, especially in Moghan, in the northwest of Iran. Forty-five isolates of the pathogen were collected from different regions of the country with two isolates from ICARDA in the summer of 2008 and identified using Nelson's key. The pathogenicity of the collected isolates was studied on a sensitive line (ILL 4605) under greenhouse conditions and significant differences in pathogenicity were found among them. The most pathogenic isolates from three provinces, East Azerbaijan (EA 30), Ardebil (Ar 3) and Khorasan (Kh 45), were selected and used in screening of 55 developed lines under greenhouse and field conditions. In the greenhouse, test plants were inoculated by immersing root tips in spore suspension and sowing seeds in pre-infested pot soil. Field tests were carried out in a naturally highly infested farm. At all stages, the plant response to the disease was based on the percentage of dead plants. Cluster analyses of the greenhouse and field data led to the selection of three lines (81S15, FLIP2007-42 L and FLIP2009-18 L) that were resistant under greenhouse and field conditions. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media B.V.

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