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Arunachalam P.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Vanniarajan C.,Agricultural College and Research Institute
Plant Archives

Seventeen barnyard millet genotypes were evaluated under rainfed condition at Dryland Agricultural Research Station, Chettinad. Experiment was conducted in a replicated trial and biometric characters were recorded. The traits i.e., inflorescence weight, biomass and grain yield have shown high phenotypic coefficient of variation, genotypic coefficient of variation and heritability. Positive genetic association was with grain yield and days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, flag leaf length, raceme number, inflorescence length, inflorescence weight and biomass. High direct effect on grain yield was recorded for biomass and plant height; moderate direct effect for inflorescence length and inflorescence weight. This study infers that plant height, inflorescence length, inflorescence weight and biomass can contribute for increasing grain yield in barnyard millet. Source

Lone A.A.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Khan M.H.,Lal Mandi | Dar Z.A.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Wani S.H.,SKUAST K

Waterlogging, caused by flooding, excessive rains and poor drainage is a serious abiotic stress determining crop productivity worldwide. Maize (Zea mays L) is a basic food grain in many areas and several cultures and is cultivated under much diverse agro-climatic zones extending from subtropical to cooler temperate regions. Therefore, the crop remains open to varied types of biotic as well as abiotic stresses. Among various abiotic stresses, waterlogging is one of the most important constraints for maize production and productivity. Breeding for improved waterlogging tolerance includes modification of plant morphology, use of tolerant secondary traits and development of resistant varieties through conventional breeding and biotechnological approaches. A successful programme in conventional breeding should involve the integration of several criteria into one selection index and also successful breeding programmes for improved tolerance to submergence stress frequently combine two or more breeding strategies. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is an effective approach to identify genomic regions of crops under stress and construction of molecular linkage maps enable carry out pyramiding of desirable traits to improve submergence tolerance through MAS. © 2016, Consiglio per la Ricercame la sperimentazione in Agrcoltura. All rights reserved. Source

Vaezi B.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Bavei V.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Shiran B.,Shahrekord University
African Journal of Agricultural Research

In a two-year experiment, 11 barley genotypes from ICARDA and one landrace from Iran were tested under optimum and drought stress conditions. Phenological and physiological traits such as relative water content (RWC), osmotic adjustment (OA), stay-green (SG), plant height (PLH), days to heading (DHE), days to maturity (DMA) and seed indexes such as 1000-grain weight (TGW), number of grain per spike (G/S) and grain yield (GY) were evaluated. Variations were observed in DHE, DMA, G/S, TGW, PLH, RWC, OA and length of stay-green period. DHE and DMA were the phenological traits that most influenced yield during water stress conditions. Negative correlation was observed under water stress between yield, DHE, and DMA under drought stress. The average reduction in yield caused by drought stress was 28.05%. Under drought stress condition, TGW, G/S, RWC and SG correlated positively with yield, while under both stress conditions, the correlation of yield and PLH was lower than other correlations. Yield was significantly correlated with osmotic adjustment (P<0.05). Among the genotypes, L6 possessed the greatest OA capacity, and L3, L8, L9 and L10 the smallest. The genotypes that show higher OA capacities therefore, are those that are most drought tolerant. Genotype L6 performed well under water stress condition as it attained a reasonable plant height, precocity, RWC, OA and SG, gave higher grain yields and seed index as compared with other genotypes. © 2010 Academic Journals. Source

Pandian K.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Subramaniayan P.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Gnasekaran P.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Chitraputhirapillai S.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biochar and organic soil amendments on soil physicochemical and microbial load, carbon sequestration potential, nutrient uptake and yield of groundnut in acidic red soil under rainfed condition. Biochar was prepared from red gram, cotton, maize stalk and mesquite wood using pilot scale slow pyrolysis biochar unit. The above sources of biochar at the rate of 2.5 and 5 t ha−1 and enriched farmyard manure 0.75 t ha−1, composted coir pith 10 t ha−1 and arbuscular mycorrhizae 100 kg ha−1 were applied as basal with required nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizer. Biochar amendment at the rate of 5 t ha−1 reduced the bulk density from 1.41 to 1.36 g cm−3 and increased the soil moisture 2.5%. With respect to soil chemical changes, it raised soil pH from 5.7 to 6.3; increased the cation exchange capacity 1.4 cmol+ kg−1 and enhanced the carbon buildup 4.4 t ha−1. The significant differences in bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes population were observed between biochar and control. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium were better utilized under biochar and composted coir pith, which was 21, 5 and 20 kg ha−1 higher than control. The experimental results suggested that application of biochar to acidic red soil favoured good soil physical, chemical and biological environment, and these positive changes influenced growth and yield attributes and enhanced pod yield 29% over control. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Source

Kannan P.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Balasubramaniyan P.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station | Mahimairaj P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Prabukumar G.,Dryland Agricultural Research Station
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis

Poultry manure (PM) has long been recognized the most desirable organic fertilizer. It improves soil fertility by adding both major and essential nutrients, as well as soil organic matter, which improves moisture and nutrient retention. The present study investigates the effectiveness of different levels of applied poultry-manure compost (PMC) and phospho-poultry-manure compost (PPMC) on the growth and yield of blackgram (Vigna mungo L). A field experiment was conducted to assess the nutrient-supplying capacity and soil health improvement potential of PMC and PPMC at 3.12, 6.25, 9.37, and 12.5 t/ha and to find the optimum dose of PMC as an organic fertilizer to maximize the pulse production in Alfisols of semi-arid tropics. Application of PPMC at 12.5 and 9.37 t ha−1 increased the seed yield 105% and 102% more than the no-manure plot. Application of PMC at 12.5 t ha−1 recorded 80% yield increment than no manure applied and the yield difference of PPMC was 20 to 25% greater than PMC alone. Application of PPMC at 12.5 and 9.37 t ha−1 resulted in desirable soil physical and chemical properties especially 85 and 70% soil-available P improvement and significant role in increasing yield of blackgram. Application of PPMC at 9.37 t ha−1 was found to be economically viable to the farmers in terms of improvement in soil properties and crop yield. ©, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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