Dryland Agricultural Research Institute

Kermānshāh, Iran

Dryland Agricultural Research Institute

Kermānshāh, Iran
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Eskandari I.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Navid H.,University of Tabriz | Rangzan K.,Shahid Chamran University
International Soil and Water Conservation Research | Year: 2016

Conservation tillage (CT) systems, which consist of reduced and no-tillage systems, retain considerable quantities of crop residues on the soil surface. These crop residues perform as a barrier to wind and water to decrease soil erosion and evaporation. The use of remote sensing technology provides fast, objective and effective tool for estimating and measuring any agricultural event. The challenge is to differentiate the tillage systems by the crop residue cover on the soil surface. Spectrally derived normalized difference tillage index (NDTI), Shortwave infrared normalized difference residue index (SINDRI), cellulose absorption index (CAI) and Lignin-cellulose absorption index (LCA) were examined to distinguish their value as remote sensing methods for identifying crop residue cover in conventional and conservation tillage systems. Tillage treatments included conventional tillage (MD: Mouldboard plow+Disk harrow), reduced tillage (CD: Chisel plow+Disk harrow), minimum till (MT: Stubble cultivator), and no-tillage (NT1 and NT2: with standing stubble and standing stubble plus threshing residue, respectively). CAI had a linear relationship with crop residue cover, which the comparative intensity of cellulose and lignin absorption features near 2100 nm can be measure by it. Coefficients of determination (r2) for crop residue cover as a function of CAI and LCA were 0.89 and 0.79 respectively. Absorption specifications near 2.1 and 2.3 µm in the reflectance spectra of crop residues in minimum and no- tillage systems were related to cellulose and lignin. These specifications were not evident in the spectra of conventional tillage system. In this study the best index to use was CAI, which showed complete separation tillage systems, followed by LCA and NDTI. Four tillage intensity classes, corresponding to intensive (<6% residue cover), reduced (10–20% cover) minimum (25–40%) and no-tillage (>60% cover) tillage, were recognized in this study. © 2016 International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation and China Water and Power Press

Vafadar Shamasbi F.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Jamali S.H.,Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute | Sadeghzadeh B.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Abdollahi Mandoulakani B.,Urmia University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

Many traits play essential roles in determining crop yield. Wide variation for morphological traits exists in Hordeum vulgare L., but the genetic basis of this morphological variation is largely unknown. To understand genetic basis controlling morphological traits affecting yield, a barley doubled haploid population (146 individuals) derived from Clipper × Sahara 3771 was used to map chromosome regions underlying days to awn appearance, plant height, fertile spike number, flag leaf length, spike length, harvest index, seed number per plant, thousands kernel weight, and grain yield. Twenty-seven QTLs for nine traits were mapped to the barley genome that described 3–69% of phenotypic variations; and some genomic regions harbor a given QTL for more than one trait. Out of 27 QTLs identified, 19 QTLs were novel. Chromosomal regions on 1H, 2H, 4H, and 6H associated with seed grain yield, and chromosome regions on 2H and 6H had major effects on grain yield (GY). One major QTL for seed number per plant was flanked by marker VRS1-KSUF15 on chromosome 2H. This QTL was also associated with GY. Some loci controlling thousands kernel weight (TKW), fertile spike number (FSN), and GY were the same. The major grain yield QTL detected on linkage PSR167 co-localized with TAM10. Two major QTLs controlling TKW and FSN were also mapped at this locus. Eight QTLs on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H consistently affected spike characteristics. One major QTL (ANIONT1A-TACMD) on 4H affected both spike length (SL) and spike number explained 9 and 5% of the variation of SL and FSN, respectively. In conclusion, this study could cast some light on the genetic basis of the studied pivotal traits. Moreover, fine mapping of the identified major effect markers may facilitate the application of molecular markers in barley breeding programs. © 2017 Vafadar Shamasbi, Jamali, Sadeghzadeh and Abdollahi Mandoulakani.

Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Sabaghnia N.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Shefazadeh M.K.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj | Pouralhossini J.,Yasuj University
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Twenty two different stability statistics were used for analyzing genotype × environment (GE) interaction of durum wheat experimental data (20 genotypes in 15 environments). Combined analysis of variance indicated that GE interaction significantly influenced genotypes yield. According to type I stability concept, genotypes G7, G9 and G13 were the most stable genotypes, while based on the type II stability concept, genotypes G4 and G15 could be selected as the most favorable genotypes. Also, genotypes G5, G7 and G13 were the most favorable genotypes according to type III stability concept and type IV stability concept which indicated that genotypes G5, G11 and G18 were the most favorable genotypes. Genotypes clustering based on stability properties and mean yield grouped them into three distinct classes. However, superior genotypes are recommended for use by farmers in semi-arid areas. Finally, based on most statistics, mean yield and dynamic concept of stability genotype G13 was stable and favorable and is recommended for national release in rain-fed lands of Iran. Regression method's slopes, genotypic stability (D 2), H statistic and desirability index (DI) which benefit type II and dynamic stability concept, could be recommended for GE interaction studies and yield stability. © 2012 Academic Journals.

Shefazadeh M.K.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj | Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2012

The difficulty of selecting for improved adaptation to heat stress makes the use of indirect measures attractive to plant breeders. To examine the response to selection on canopy temperature, leaf chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm ratio and kernel weight and to evaluate the response of some wheat genotypes facing high temperatures during and after anthesis under field conditions, ten bread wheat genotypes were exposed to two different sowing dates: normal and late sowing, to assure high temperatures during and after anthesis, in 2010-2011 in a field adjacent to Gachsaran Agricultural Research Station that is located in southwest Iran. Results indicated significant difference for all physiological traits and significant phenotypic correlation with grain yield, particularly in more heated environments. Canopy temperature explained 71 and 54.2% of grain yield variation in more and less heated environments, respectively. The lines having tolerance to high temperature during grain filling stage were marked for future breeding program.

Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Sabaghnia N.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Shefazadeh M.K.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj
Turkish Journal of Field Crops | Year: 2012

Yield stability is an interesting feature of today's wheat breeding programs, due to the high annual variation in mean yield, particularly in the arid and semi-arid areas. Eighteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes sourced from different regions were tested for yield stability and performance in four environments between 2007 and 2009 using various stability statistics. The experiment of each environment was laid out in a randomized complete-block design with four replications. Combined analysis of variance of grain yield revealed highly significant differences among genotypes and environments. Significant genotype × environment interaction indicated differential performance of genotypes across environments. Considering coefficient of several linear regression models, including conventional, adjusted, independent and Tai models as well as deviation variance from these models, genotype G2 was the most stable genotypes. Stability assessment on the basis of parameters like environmental variance, coefficient of variation, stability variance, genotypic stability and Superiority Index, genotypes G2 and GS were the most stable genotypes. The results of principal component analysis of stability statistics and mean yield indicated that slope of linear regression of both conventional and independent models would be useful for simultaneously selecting for high yield and stability. The plot of the first two principal components also revealed that the stability statistics could be grouped as two distinct classes that corresponded to different static and dynamic concepts of stability. Finally, regarding both mean yield and most of stability characteristics, genotypes G2 and G5 were found to be the most stable genotypes. Such an outcome could be employed in the future to delineate rigorous recommendation strategies as well as to help define stability concepts for other crops.

Nejadsadeghi L.,University of Tehran | Maali-Amiri R.,University of Tehran | Zeinali H.,University of Tehran | Ramezanpour S.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Sadeghzade B.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

The cellular changes induced by cold stress (CS) include responses that lead to oxidative stress and limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity. In this study, responses of physio-biochemical to CS phases were comparatively studied in three genotypes of bread and durum wheats differing in sensitivity, two of them (Norstar, bread wheat and Gerdish, durum wheat) were tolerant to CS and the other one, SRN (durum wheat) was sensitive to CS. 14-day-old seedlings were subjected to CS (12 and 24 h) with or without cold acclimation (CA) phase. During CS, the elevated levels of electrolyte leakage index, contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde in Norstar and Gerdish were lower than that of SRN plants. Positive correlation and co-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging systems, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and proline especially after CA phase suggested crucial role for holding back toxic ROS levels in CS phase. However, different activities of this system resulted in different intensities of oxidative stress in acclimated and non-acclimated plants. Our results showed that a CA phase induced oxidative stress tolerance by modulating antioxidative systems. These responses confirmed the existence of wide range of genetic capacity in durum wheat to increase cold tolerance particularly in Gerdish so that the sensitivity of SRN plants to CS was linearly correlated with the more decrease of antioxidant systems. These general responses may be a sign for associating other metabolites or enzymes activities to create partly tolerance against cold-induced oxidative stress. Eventually, assessing the dynamic of cell responses in short intervals after CS without CA phases profitably could be a novel path in plant stress response investigations in a short period of time. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Pooryousef M.,Islamic Azad University at Mahābād | Alizadeh K.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute
Research on Crops | Year: 2014

This work investigated the efficiency of free amino acid compounds to improve production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under rainfed conditions during 2011-12. Experiment was conducted as complete randomized block design with three replications at three already established alfalfa cv. Garayonja fields. There was two different spraying times including one spray at early 4-6 leaves stage and three times spraying started at 4-6 leaves stage with two weeks' intervals. The experiment included 12 treatments resulting from factorial of six spray treatments and two spraying times. Spray treatments included Aminol-forte, Kadostim, Fosnutren and Humiforte at 1 1/ha, along with water spray and no spray as control. Results indicated that increasing the spraying times of plants with amino acid compounds significantly (P<0.01) increased plant height, dry biomass weight and crude protein content compared to control. Different amino acid compounds showed different effects regarding the studied traits. The highest fresh biomass (14 t/ha) achieved in using Kadestim which was 100% more than control. Application of Aminol-forte resulted in the highest crude protein content (22%) comparing 17% in the control. It was concluded that foliar spray of free amino acids could enhance the quality and quantity of alfalfa in the rainfed conditions.

Heidarvand L.,University of Tehran | Amiri R.M.,University of Tehran | Naghavi M.R.,University of Tehran | Farayedi Y.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Economically important crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is sensitive to chilling stress, and breeding for chilling tolerance is the economic option even in countries with a high risk for drought and heat stresses. In this study, we have analyzed chilling-induced responses of ten chickpea accessions under field and growth-chamber conditions in order to screen, using phenotypic and physiological methods, for chilling tolerance. The field data analysis revealed that there were significant differences between accessions in their cold tolerance. The percent survival and cold-tolerance scores were the most important indices describing genotype tolerance to low temperature under field conditions; they can be used to assess chickpea cold tolerance. During environmentally controlled testing, the effects of low temperature regimes (-10°C for 15 and 30 min) were studied and cold tolerance was measured by electrolyte leakage from damaged leaves. The analysis of field data and cold treatments showed that two accessions, Sel 95Th1716 and Sel 96Th11439, grouped in one cluster, are good cold-tolerant genotypes (showing low scores for cold tolerance and electrolyte leakage). In comparison with ILC 8262, released as cold-tolerant accession, these genotypes showed more tolerance. Flip 00-6C, ILC 533, and Jam were less tolerant to cold stress. Thus, we have shown that as well as field studies, short-term cold treatment and electrolyte leakage assay can be used to evaluate low temperature tolerance of chickpea profitably in a short time. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Yeilaghi H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Arzani A.,Isfahan University of Technology | Ghaderian M.,University of Zanjan | Fotovat R.,University of Zanjan | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a species moderately tolerant to salt stress and is cultivated in dry areas where salinity can be a serious threat. We examined effects of salinity stress on seed oil content and fatty acid composition in 64 safflower genotypes grown under saline and non-saline (control) field experiments in two growing seasons. The results showed significant effects of genotype, salinity and their interactions on most of the characteristics examined. Salt tolerant genotypes were less affected by salinity than salt-sensitive ones for oil quantity and quality. The overall reductions of 7.7% oil content and 29% oil yield were observed due to salinity stress. Salinity stress caused a significant increase in oleic acid (C18:1) and significant decreases in linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids. These results suggest inhibition of oleic acid desaturase and differential responses of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes under salinity stress. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Dehghani H.,Tarbiat Modares University | Sabaghpour S.H.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Ebadi A.,Tarbiat Modares University
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2010

Plant breeders aim to select genotypes with stable phenotypes across environments. Multienvironment trials (METs) including 3 yr and six locations for 17 genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) were performed in Iran. Bartlett's test of homogeneity of variances was not significant and so the combined analysis was done. This analysis indicated that the environment (E), genotype (G), and the genotype by environment (GE) interaction were significant. Thus, stability analysis was necessary, and so additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) stability parameters and some regression methods were used for a stability analysis. According to regression method, the high-yielding genotype, G8, was more responsive (bi > 1) to improved environmental conditions than the other genotypes. Stability parameters of Tai indicated that genotypes G3 and G17 and stability statistics of AMMI analyses showed that G2 and G3 were the most stable genotypes. The first and the second factors (F1 and F2) of factor analysis explained 73.84% total variance of stability parameters, and F1 separated the Di 2 and αi from the other parameters. The F2 separated static and dynamic concepts of stability, in which the mean yield, regression coefficient, EVF, SIPCF, and AMGEF parameters had a dynamic concept of stability, and the other remaining parameters had static concept of stability. Finally, according to all stability statistics and regarding the high mean yield, genotype G8 (Flip 93-93) was recommended for national release in Iran, as it adequately demonstrated wide adaptation across environments. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy.

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