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Nejadsadeghi L.,University of Tehran | Maali-Amiri R.,University of Tehran | Zeinali H.,University of Tehran | Ramezanpour S.,Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources | Sadeghzade B.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics

The cellular changes induced by cold stress (CS) include responses that lead to oxidative stress and limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity. In this study, responses of physio-biochemical to CS phases were comparatively studied in three genotypes of bread and durum wheats differing in sensitivity, two of them (Norstar, bread wheat and Gerdish, durum wheat) were tolerant to CS and the other one, SRN (durum wheat) was sensitive to CS. 14-day-old seedlings were subjected to CS (12 and 24 h) with or without cold acclimation (CA) phase. During CS, the elevated levels of electrolyte leakage index, contents of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde in Norstar and Gerdish were lower than that of SRN plants. Positive correlation and co-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging systems, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, and proline especially after CA phase suggested crucial role for holding back toxic ROS levels in CS phase. However, different activities of this system resulted in different intensities of oxidative stress in acclimated and non-acclimated plants. Our results showed that a CA phase induced oxidative stress tolerance by modulating antioxidative systems. These responses confirmed the existence of wide range of genetic capacity in durum wheat to increase cold tolerance particularly in Gerdish so that the sensitivity of SRN plants to CS was linearly correlated with the more decrease of antioxidant systems. These general responses may be a sign for associating other metabolites or enzymes activities to create partly tolerance against cold-induced oxidative stress. Eventually, assessing the dynamic of cell responses in short intervals after CS without CA phases profitably could be a novel path in plant stress response investigations in a short period of time. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Pouryousef M.,Islamic Azad University at Mahabad | Alizadeh K.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute
Legume Research

The mixing ratios of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Abidar and smooth vetch (Vicia dasycarpa L.) cv. Maragheh were studied at Dryland Agricultural Research Institute under cold rain-fed conditions during 2009-2011 growing seasons. The mix cropping treatments comprised of pure vetch, vetch with barley at 3:1, vetch with barley at 1:1 seeding ratio and pure barley. There was one seeding rate (100 seeds m-2) for barley and five different seeding rates of vetch including 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 seeds m-2 (D1, D2, D3, D4, D5). Higher dry matter (DM) yields were obtained across different seed rates for the vetch mixtures than related monocultures. The highest DM and the lowest protein content over years were obtained from pure barley. The combination of vetch with barley at 1:1 seeding ratio in the D2 density produced 16 ton ha-1 dry forage and 1 ton ha-1 protein. The highest land equivalent ratio over two years (1.44) was belonged to mixture of vetch with barley at 3:1 ratio in D5 seeding rate. It was concluded that, mixture of vetch with barley at 1:1 seeding ratio in D5 smooth vetch density was the best mixing ratio and seed density regarding both forage quality and quantity under cold rain-fed conditions. Source

Pooryousef M.,Islamic Azad University at Mahabad | Alizadeh K.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute
Research on Crops

This work investigated the efficiency of free amino acid compounds to improve production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) under rainfed conditions during 2011-12. Experiment was conducted as complete randomized block design with three replications at three already established alfalfa cv. Garayonja fields. There was two different spraying times including one spray at early 4-6 leaves stage and three times spraying started at 4-6 leaves stage with two weeks' intervals. The experiment included 12 treatments resulting from factorial of six spray treatments and two spraying times. Spray treatments included Aminol-forte, Kadostim, Fosnutren and Humiforte at 1 1/ha, along with water spray and no spray as control. Results indicated that increasing the spraying times of plants with amino acid compounds significantly (P<0.01) increased plant height, dry biomass weight and crude protein content compared to control. Different amino acid compounds showed different effects regarding the studied traits. The highest fresh biomass (14 t/ha) achieved in using Kadestim which was 100% more than control. Application of Aminol-forte resulted in the highest crude protein content (22%) comparing 17% in the control. It was concluded that foliar spray of free amino acids could enhance the quality and quantity of alfalfa in the rainfed conditions. Source

Yeilaghi H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Arzani A.,Isfahan University of Technology | Ghaderian M.,University of Zanjan | Fotovat R.,University of Zanjan | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a species moderately tolerant to salt stress and is cultivated in dry areas where salinity can be a serious threat. We examined effects of salinity stress on seed oil content and fatty acid composition in 64 safflower genotypes grown under saline and non-saline (control) field experiments in two growing seasons. The results showed significant effects of genotype, salinity and their interactions on most of the characteristics examined. Salt tolerant genotypes were less affected by salinity than salt-sensitive ones for oil quantity and quality. The overall reductions of 7.7% oil content and 29% oil yield were observed due to salinity stress. Salinity stress caused a significant increase in oleic acid (C18:1) and significant decreases in linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acids. These results suggest inhibition of oleic acid desaturase and differential responses of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes under salinity stress. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Karimizadeh R.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Mohammadi M.,Dryland Agricultural Research Institute | Sabaghnia N.,Islamic Azad University at Maragheh | Shefazadeh M.K.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj | Pouralhossini J.,Yasuj University
African Journal of Biotechnology

Twenty two different stability statistics were used for analyzing genotype × environment (GE) interaction of durum wheat experimental data (20 genotypes in 15 environments). Combined analysis of variance indicated that GE interaction significantly influenced genotypes yield. According to type I stability concept, genotypes G7, G9 and G13 were the most stable genotypes, while based on the type II stability concept, genotypes G4 and G15 could be selected as the most favorable genotypes. Also, genotypes G5, G7 and G13 were the most favorable genotypes according to type III stability concept and type IV stability concept which indicated that genotypes G5, G11 and G18 were the most favorable genotypes. Genotypes clustering based on stability properties and mean yield grouped them into three distinct classes. However, superior genotypes are recommended for use by farmers in semi-arid areas. Finally, based on most statistics, mean yield and dynamic concept of stability genotype G13 was stable and favorable and is recommended for national release in rain-fed lands of Iran. Regression method's slopes, genotypic stability (D 2), H statistic and desirability index (DI) which benefit type II and dynamic stability concept, could be recommended for GE interaction studies and yield stability. © 2012 Academic Journals. Source

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