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Zhang J.,China Agricultural University | Hu K.,China Agricultural University | Li K.,Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Zheng C.,Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Li B.,China Agricultural University
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2017

The objectives of this study were to investigate the applicability of the DNDC model under long-term discontinuous fertilization (three years of fertilization followed by three years of no fertilization) in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system, and to analyze the effects of long-term fertilization and straw return on soil organic carbon (SOC) and crop yields and to optimize the ratio of straw incorporation to fertilization rate. A 30-year (1981–2011) long-term experiment was conducted at the Hengshui Experimental Station in Hebei Province with combinations of four inorganic fertilization rates and four maize straw incorporation amounts. Crop yields and SOC contents in the topsoil (0–20 cm) were measured for each treatment, and the data were used to calibrate and validate the DNDC model. Results indicated the good performance of DNDC model in simulating crop yields and SOC contents with modeling efficiency ≥ 0.55, normalized root mean square error ≤31.3%, and index of agreement ≥0.85. However, the model performed relatively poorly in four treatments without fertilizers. Determination coefficients between simulated and measured values of the winter wheat yields, summer maize yields, and SOC contents were 0.747, 0.671, and 0.425, respectively. Crop yield and SOC content predictions were better during periods with fertilization than that during periods without fertilization. The rate of increase in crop yields induced by increasing fertilization rates was higher than that induced by increasing amounts of incorporated straw. However, rate of increase in SOC content resulting from increasing fertilization rate was lower than that from increasing amount of incorporated straw. Over 52 scenarios combining 13 levels of fertilizer rates with four levels of maize straw incorporation were simulated. Results from yields, soil fertility, and greenhouse gas emission showed that the optimal ratio for discontinuous fertilization was 420 kg N ha−1 yr−1 combined with straw incorporation of 10000 kg ha−1 yr−1, whereas that for continuous fertilization was 300 kg N ha−1 yr−1 combined with straw incorporation of 10000 kg ha−1 yr−1. Thus, the DNDC model could effectively predict crop yields and SOC dynamics under discontinuous fertilization conditions in Hengshui. High and stable crop yields and enhanced soil fertility could be achieved by optimizing the ratio of fertilization rate to amount of incorporated straw. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Li Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li Q.,Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Chen X.M.,Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Li D.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Wheat powdery mildew is caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Pm21 is an effective broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance gene, which shows a considerable promise in wheat breeding. We report here a proteomic approach to investigate the resistance response proteins after fungal infection and emphasize the resistance changes induced by Pm21. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) near-isogenic lines (NILs), recurrent parent 'Bainong,' which is susceptible to powdery mildew, and its near-isogenic line 'W2132' carrying resistance gene Pm21) were used to investigate some changes in their proteomes after being infected. Proteins were extracted from the leaves sampled in 48 h after inoculation, separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue. Among these proteins, a total of 56 spots differentially expressed after Bgt infection were detected. Sixteen proteins, identified by MALDI-TOF-MS, exhibited more than a 1.5-fold increase upon fungal infection. Unfortunately, three spots were not identified successfully. The predicted functions of identified proteins were related to energy metabolism and defensive responses; they were involved in many physiological resistance responses, including enhancing energy metabolism, proteins synthesis and stabilization, antioxidant reactions, cell-wall reinforcement, and lignification. Interestingly that the expression of two proteins related to the cell-wall reinforcement was enhanced in the resistant line and one protein related to photosynthesis was lost in a susceptible line. By transmission electronic microscopy, the corresponding physiological characteristics were also observed. These results provide us with the information to further reveal the resistance mechanism of Pm21 action and comprehensively investigate the physiological response to powdery mildew at the protein level. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Zhao X.,University of Hohenheim | Hu K.,China Agricultural University | Li K.,Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Wang P.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2013

The objective was to evaluate the effect of different agricultural managements on soil organic C (SOC) storage and crop yields in the North China Plain (NCP). The study was conducted at five experimental stations. Different agricultural managements were designed, including optimal (OPT) and conventional (CON) irrigation and fertilization treatments, different amounts of fertilization application and residue-return treatments, and different tillage practices. Compared to the CON treatment, SOC storage in the 1 m soil profile under the OPT treatment increased by 2 t ha-1, 8 t ha-1, and 4 t ha-1 at Quzhou, Wuqiao, and Dongbeiwang sites, respectively. The annual increasing rate of SOC storages in the topsoil (0-30cm) under the OPT treatments at Wuqiao (0.88 t ha-1 y-1), Quzhou (0.93 t ha-1 y-1), and Dongbeiwang (1.86 t ha-1 y-1) were higher than those in the CON treatments at Wuqiao (0.15 t ha-1 y-1), Quzhou (0.54 t ha-1 y-1), and Dongbeiwang (0.28 t ha-1 y-1), but the difference of grain yields between the two treatments was not significant. The SOC storage in 1 m soil profile in the no-tillage treatment with standing residue return (NT1) at Luancheng increased by 5 t ha-1 and 7 t ha-1 compared with rotary-tillage (RT) and conventional-tillage (CT) treatments, respectively, but the crop yield under no-tillage treatment was the lowest. While at Quzhou site, it increased by 3 t ha-1 in the top 40cm soil under the NT treatment compared to the CT treatment. The annual increasing rate of SOC storage in the top 30cm under NT treatment was also the highest (1.08 t ha-1 y-1 at Luancheng, 1.86 t ha-1 y-1 at Quzhou), compared to the other tillage treatments. At Henghsui site, the combination of the highest fertilization application and highest residue-return treatments got the highest SOC storage and the highest crop yields. We concluded that the agricultural management practices, such as optimal irrigation and fertilization treatment, the higher fertilization, residue return and RT, has significant impact on the SOC storage and agricultural sustainability in the NCP. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science, Tangshan Academy of Agricultural science and China Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

With the goal of finding a new way to reduce population densities of Bemisia tabaci biotype Q in greenhouses, seven repellent volatile chemicals and their combinations were screened. The mixture of DLCO (D-limonene, citral and olive oil (63:7:30)) had a better cost performance(SC50 = 22.59 mg/ml)to repel whiteflies from settling than the other mixtures or single chemicals. In the greenhouse, in both the choice test and the no-choice tests, the number of adult whiteflies that settled on 1% DLCO-treated tomato plants was significantly lower than those settling on the control plants for the different exposure periods (P < 0.01). In the choice test, the egg amount on the treated tomato plants was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that on the control plants, but there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the number of eggs on treated and control plants in the no-choice test. Compared with the controls, 1% DLCO did not cause significantly statistic mortality rates (P > 0.05) out of different living stages of B. tabaci. The tests for evaluating the repellent efficacy, showed that a slow-releasing bottle containing the mixture had a period of efficacy of 29 days, and the application of this mixture plus a yellow board used as a push-pull strategy in the greenhouse was also effective.

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