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Zhao X.,University of Hohenheim | Hu K.,China Agricultural University | Li K.,Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Wang P.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science | Year: 2013

The objective was to evaluate the effect of different agricultural managements on soil organic C (SOC) storage and crop yields in the North China Plain (NCP). The study was conducted at five experimental stations. Different agricultural managements were designed, including optimal (OPT) and conventional (CON) irrigation and fertilization treatments, different amounts of fertilization application and residue-return treatments, and different tillage practices. Compared to the CON treatment, SOC storage in the 1 m soil profile under the OPT treatment increased by 2 t ha-1, 8 t ha-1, and 4 t ha-1 at Quzhou, Wuqiao, and Dongbeiwang sites, respectively. The annual increasing rate of SOC storages in the topsoil (0-30cm) under the OPT treatments at Wuqiao (0.88 t ha-1 y-1), Quzhou (0.93 t ha-1 y-1), and Dongbeiwang (1.86 t ha-1 y-1) were higher than those in the CON treatments at Wuqiao (0.15 t ha-1 y-1), Quzhou (0.54 t ha-1 y-1), and Dongbeiwang (0.28 t ha-1 y-1), but the difference of grain yields between the two treatments was not significant. The SOC storage in 1 m soil profile in the no-tillage treatment with standing residue return (NT1) at Luancheng increased by 5 t ha-1 and 7 t ha-1 compared with rotary-tillage (RT) and conventional-tillage (CT) treatments, respectively, but the crop yield under no-tillage treatment was the lowest. While at Quzhou site, it increased by 3 t ha-1 in the top 40cm soil under the NT treatment compared to the CT treatment. The annual increasing rate of SOC storage in the top 30cm under NT treatment was also the highest (1.08 t ha-1 y-1 at Luancheng, 1.86 t ha-1 y-1 at Quzhou), compared to the other tillage treatments. At Henghsui site, the combination of the highest fertilization application and highest residue-return treatments got the highest SOC storage and the highest crop yields. We concluded that the agricultural management practices, such as optimal irrigation and fertilization treatment, the higher fertilization, residue return and RT, has significant impact on the SOC storage and agricultural sustainability in the NCP. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Li Q.,Shandong Agricultural University | Li Q.,Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Chen X.M.,Dry Land Farming Institute of Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Li D.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Wheat powdery mildew is caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Pm21 is an effective broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance gene, which shows a considerable promise in wheat breeding. We report here a proteomic approach to investigate the resistance response proteins after fungal infection and emphasize the resistance changes induced by Pm21. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) near-isogenic lines (NILs), recurrent parent 'Bainong,' which is susceptible to powdery mildew, and its near-isogenic line 'W2132' carrying resistance gene Pm21) were used to investigate some changes in their proteomes after being infected. Proteins were extracted from the leaves sampled in 48 h after inoculation, separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue. Among these proteins, a total of 56 spots differentially expressed after Bgt infection were detected. Sixteen proteins, identified by MALDI-TOF-MS, exhibited more than a 1.5-fold increase upon fungal infection. Unfortunately, three spots were not identified successfully. The predicted functions of identified proteins were related to energy metabolism and defensive responses; they were involved in many physiological resistance responses, including enhancing energy metabolism, proteins synthesis and stabilization, antioxidant reactions, cell-wall reinforcement, and lignification. Interestingly that the expression of two proteins related to the cell-wall reinforcement was enhanced in the resistant line and one protein related to photosynthesis was lost in a susceptible line. By transmission electronic microscopy, the corresponding physiological characteristics were also observed. These results provide us with the information to further reveal the resistance mechanism of Pm21 action and comprehensively investigate the physiological response to powdery mildew at the protein level. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

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