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Guo R.,Donghua University | Li R.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | Jiang X.,Nanjing University | Liu B.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital
Langmuir | Year: 2010

Multifunctional nanocarriers based on chitosan/gold nanorod (CS-AuNR) hybrid nanospheres have been successfully fabricated by a simple nonsolvent-aided counterion complexation method. Anticancer drug cisplatin was subsequently loaded into the obtained hybrid nanospheres, utilizing the loading space provided by the chitosan spherical matrix. In vitro cell experiments demonstrated that the CS-AuNR hybrid nanospheres can not only be utilized as contrast agents for real-time cell imaging but also serve as a near-infrared (NIR) thermotherapy nanodevice to achieve irradiation-induced cancer cell death owing to the unique optical properties endowed by the encapsulated gold nanorods. In addition, an effective attack on the cancer cells by the loaded anticancer drug cisplatin has also been observed, rendering the obtained nanocarriers an all-in-one system possessing drug delivery, cell imaging, and photothermal therapy functionalities. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Lin G.,University of California at San Francisco | Qiu X.,University of California at San Francisco | Qiu X.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | Fandel T.,University of California at San Francisco | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Impotence Research | Year: 2011

The intracavernous (i.c.) injection of stem cells (SCs) has been shown to improve erectile function in various erectile dysfunction (ED) animal models. However, the tissue distribution of the injected cells remains unknown. In this study we tracked i.c.-injected adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in various tissues. Rat paratesticular fat was processed for ADSC isolation and culture. The animals were then subject to cavernous nerve (CN) crush injury or sham operation, followed by i.c. injection of 1 million autologous or allogeneic ADSCs that were labeled with 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU). Another group of rats received i.c. injection of EdU-labeled allogeneic penile smooth muscle cells (PSMCs). At 2 and 7 days post injection, penises and femoral bone marrow were processed for histological analyses. Whole femoral bone marrows were also analyzed for EdU-positive cells by flow cytometry. The results show that ADSCs exited the penis within days of i.c. injection and migrated preferentially to bone marrow. Allogenicity did not affect the bone marrow appearance of ADSCs at either 2 or 7 days, whereas CN injury reduced the number of ADSCs in bone marrow significantly at 7 but not 2 days. The significance of these results in relation to SC therapy for ED is discussed. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Feng Z.-Q.,Nanjing Southeast University | Chu X.-H.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | Huang N.-P.,Nanjing Southeast University | Leach M.K.,University of Michigan | And 4 more authors.
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Primary hepatocytes cultured in three dimensional tissue constructs composed of multicellular aggregates maintain normal differentiated cellular function in vitro while cultured monolayers do not. Here, we report a technique to induce hepatocyte aggregate formation using type-I collagen-coated poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) discrete aligned nanofibers (disAFs) by providing limited cell-substrate adhesion strength and restricting cell migration to uniaxial movement. Kinetics of aggregate formation, morphology and biochemical activities of rat hepatocyte aggregates were tested over a 15 day culture period. Evidence was provided that physical cues from disAFs quickly induced the formation of aggregates. After 3 days in culture, 88.3% of free hepatocytes on disAFs were incorporated into aggregates with an average diameter of 61 ± 18 μm. Hepatocyte aggregates formed on disAFs displayed excellent cell retention, cell activity and stable functional expression in terms of albumin secretion, urea synthesis and phase I and II (CYP1A and UGT) metabolic enzyme activity compared to monolayer culture of hepatocytes on tissue culture plastic (TCP) with type-I collagen as well as on meshes of type-I collagen-coated PLLA random nanofibers (meshRFs). These results suggest that disAFs may be a suitable method to maintain large-scale hepatic cultures with high activity for tissue engineering research and potential therapeutic applications, such as bioartificial liver devices. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Xiaoping G.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | XiaoFang Z.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | YaGuo Z.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | Juan Z.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010

N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and protein kinase C (PKC) play important roles in the induction and maintenance of central sensitization during pain states. It has been shown that spinal NMDA receptor-dependent activation of PKCγ facilitates nociception during neuropathic and inflammatory pain, but its involvement in bone cancer pain has not previously been established. The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of the spinal NMDA receptor/PKCγ signaling pathway in the development of bone cancer pain. Osteosarcoma NCTC 2472 cells were implanted into the intramedullary space of the right femurs of C3H/HeJ mice to induce ongoing bone cancer-related pain behaviors. At day 7, 10 and 14 after operation, the expression of PKCγ mRNA in the spinal cord was higher in tumor-bearing mice compared to the sham mice. At day 14, intrathecal administration of 5 μg of NR2B subunit-specific NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil attenuated the up-regulation of PKCγ mRNA in the spinal cord as well as bone cancer-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of 10 μg of PKC inhibitor H-7 attenuated cancer-evoked thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia at day 14. These results suggest that the NMDA receptor/PKCγ signaling pathway may participate in the development of bone cancer pain, and ifenprodil may be a useful alternative or adjunct therapy for bone cancer pain. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gu X.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | Zhang J.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | Ma Z.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | Wang J.,Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Pain | Year: 2010

Cancer pain is one kind of the most common and severe kinds of chronic pain. No breakthrough regarding the mechanisms and therapeutics of cancer pains has yet been achieved. Based on the well established involvement of the NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor containing NR2B in inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain and the effective pain relief obtained with ketamine in cancer patients with intractable pain, we supposed that NR2B in the spinal cord was an important factor for cancer pain. In this study, we investigated the possible role of NR2B in the spinal cord using a murine model of bone cancer pain. C3H/HeJ mice were inoculated into the intramedullary space of the right femur with Osteosarcoma NCTC 2472 cells to induce ongoing bone cancer-related pain behaviors. At day 14 after operation, the expression of NR2B mRNA and NR2B protein in the spinal cord were higher in tumor-bearing mice compared to the sham mice. Intrathecal administration of 5 and 10 μg of NR2B subunit-specific NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil attenuated cancer-evoked spontaneous pain, thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. These results suggest that NR2B in the spinal cord may participate in bone cancer pain in mice, and ifenprodil may be a useful alternative or adjunct therapy for bone cancer pain. The findings may lead to novel strategies for the treatment of bone cancer pain. © 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

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