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Yahya M.S.,Mohammed V University | El Karbane M.,Drugs Quality Control Laboratory | Oturan N.,University Paris Est Creteil | El Kacemi K.,Mohammed V University | Oturan M.A.,University Paris Est Creteil
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

The present study investigates the feasibility of using electro-Fenton (EF) process for the oxidative degradation of antibiotic levofloxacin (LEV). The EF experiments have been performed in an electrochemical cell using a carbon-felt cathode. The effect of applied current in the range 60-500mA and catalyst concentration in the range 0.05-0.5mM on the kinetics of oxidative degradation and mineralization efficiency have been investigated. Degradation of LEV by hydroxyl radicals was found to follow pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The absolute rate constant for oxidative degradation of LEV by hydroxyl radical has been determined by a competition kinetics method and found to be (2.48 ± 0.18) × 109M-1s-1. An optimum current value of 400mA and a catalyst (Fe2+) concentration of 0.1mM were observed to be optimal for an effective degradation of LEV under our operating conditions. Mineralization of aqueous solution of LEV was performed by the chemical oxygen demand analysis and an almost mineralization degree (>91%) was reached at the end of 6h of electrolysis. A number of intermediate products have been identified using high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chrmatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Based on these identified reaction intermediates, a plausible reaction pathway has been suggested for the mineralization process. The formation and evolution of and ions released to the medium during the process were also discussed. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Sawadogo C.W.,Mohammed V University | Al-Kamarany M.A.,Mohammed V University | Al-Mekhlafi H.M.,University of Malaya | Al-Mekhlafi H.M.,Sanaa University | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology | Year: 2011

Malaria is the biggest killer of African children, yet it is cheaply preventable and curable with insecticides spraying, impregnated bednets and effective drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the quality ofChloroquine (CQ) tablets available in selected African countries. Twenty-six samples of antimalarial CQ tablet of 100, 150 and 250 mg were collected from12 African countries and evaluated for their quality in the Drugs Quality Control Laboratory of Rabat, Morocco. The identification and dosage of active pharmaceutical ingredients in the tablets, dissolution rate, hardness and the friability of CQtabletswere performed according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Eur.Ph.) recommended methods. The results showed that 7.7% of the sampled CQ tablets available in Burkina Faso were of low quality. Failure in dissolution profile was found in50%ofCQtablets sampled fromBenin,BurkinaFaso,ComorosUnion, Mali and Senegal.The findings showed poor quality ofCQtablets available in the Africanmarket. This problemmay affect the efforts to control malaria in Africa. Efficient regulatory systems of drugs quality control should be implemented. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2011.


Yahya M.S.,Mohammed V University | Oturan N.,University Paris Est Creteil | El Kacemi K.,Mohammed V University | El Karbane M.,Drugs Quality Control Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Oxidative degradation of the antimicrobial agent ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP) has been investigated using electro-Fenton (EF) treatment with a constant current in the range 60-500mA. The process generates highly oxidant species ·OH in situ via electrochemically monitored Fenton reaction. The EF experiments were performed using cells with a carbon felt cathode and Pt anode. Effect of applied current and catalyst concentration on the kinetics of oxidative degradation and mineralization efficiency have been investigated. Degradation of CIP followed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The rate constant of the oxidation of CIP by ·OH has been determined to be (1.01±0.14) × 1010 M-1 s-1 by using competitive kinetics method. An optimum current of 400mA and a catalyst concentration of Fe2+ at 0.1mM are found to be optimal for an effective degradation of CIP under our operating conditions. A remarkably high degree of mineralization (>94%) was obtained at 6h of treatment under these conditions. A number of stable intermediate products have been identified using HPLC and LC-MS/MS analyses. Based on the identified reaction intermediates, a plausible reaction pathway was proposed for the mineralization process. The high degree of mineralization obtained in this work highlights the potential application of EF process in the efficient removal of fluoroquinolone based drugs in aqueous medium. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Amood Al-Kamarany M.,Mohammed V University | Amood Al-Kamarany M.,Drugs Quality Control Laboratory | El Karbane M.,Mohammed V University | El Karbane M.,Drugs Quality Control Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2012

The article presents a rapid and sensitive RP-HPLC method with UV detection, using the diclofenac sodium release determination in solid pharmaceutical formulations. A novel validation strategy based on accuracy profiles was used to select the most appropriate regression model with highest accuracy within well defined acceptance limits. Furthermore, the strategy was used to determine the limits of quantification as well as the suitable concentration range. The validation phase was completed by investigating of the risk profiles of various acceptable regression models in order to avoid obtaining measurements outside the acceptance limits fixed a priori. On the other hand, the present study shows how the LC method can be used more accurately to assess the kinetic dissolution profiles, instead the UV-visible method required by monographs of the USP. Robustness study was also performed in order to demonstrate the capability of this method to remain unaffected by a small and deliberate variation in method parameters. The LC method was validated using the total error approach, as a decision tool, guarantees that each of the future results that will be within the acceptance limits settled at ± 5 %. The UV spectrophotometric method based on the USP monograph, gives rise of impurities from diclofenac sodium in acidic condition (HCl 0.1 N). These impurities absorb at the same wave length (276 nm) as the active principal ingredient, which will yield some significant error in the per cent release during the dissolution test study. Described analytical method is a simple, sensitive, specific and more accurate indicating that this LC method is useful for manufacturing and quality control assay.


Bourichi H.,Mohammed V University | Brik Y.,Drugs Quality Control Laboratory | Hubert P.,University of Liege | Cherrah Y.,Mohammed V University | Bouklouze A.,Mohammed V University
Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis | Year: 2012

In this paper, we report the results of quality control based in physicochemical characterization and impurities determination of three samples of fluconazole drug substances marketed in Morocco. These samples were supplied by different pharmaceuticals companies. The sample A, as the discovered product, was supplied by Pfizer, while samples B and C (generics), were manufactured by two different Indian industries. Solid-state characterization of the three samples was realized with different physicochemical methods as: X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transformation infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify the impurities in the different samples. The results from the physicochemical methods cited above, showed difference in polymorph structure of the three drug substances. Sample A consisted in pure polymorph III, sample B consisted in pure polymorph II, sample C consisted in a mixture of fluconazole Form III, form II and the monohydrate. This result was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry. Also it was demonstrated that solvents used during the re-crystallization step were among the origins of these differences in the structure form. On the other hand, the result of the stability study under humidity and temperature showed that fluconazole polymorphic transformation could be owed to the no compliance with the conditions of storage. The HPLC analysis of these compounds showed the presence of specific impurities for each polymorphic form, and a possible relationship could be exist between impurities and crystalline form of fluconazole. © 2012 Xi'an Jiaotong University.

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