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Diro E.,University of Gondar | Diro E.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Lynen L.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | Assefa M.,Yale University | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Diagnostic guidelines for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in the East African region are complex. Patients meeting the VL clinical case definition should be tested by rK39 rapid diagnostic test (RDT) followed by the Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) or tissue aspiration if RDT-negative. Otherwise, RDT-positive patients should be started on VL treatment. We evaluated how this guideline is adhered to by assessing the routine clinical practice in a university hospital in North-West Ethiopia. Retrospective record analysis was done for all patients who had an rK39-RDT done at University of Gondar (UoG) Hospital between June 2012 and June 2013. We described the diagnostic work-up performed and the proportion initiated on VL treatment by test result. From a total of 928 patients tested, 308 (33.2%) were rK39 RDT-positive. Spleen or bone marrow aspiration was done for 237 (77.2%) RDT-positive patients. Of these, 165 were confirmed parasitologically, yielding a positive predictive value of 69.6%. Only 126 (20.3%) of the 620 patients with a negative rK39 test underwent further testing by tissue aspiration, of which 22 (17.5%) were also parasitology positive. HIV test results were available for 570 (61.4%) patients and 36 (6.3%) were HIV-infected. Of the 187 parasitologically confirmed patients, 182 (97.3%) were started on VL treatment. A negative rK39 test was often not followed by further testing and a positive rK39 test result was followed by tissue aspiration in three out of four cases. Further research is required to understand why the diagnostic work-up did not comply with the guidelines, including evaluating adherence to the VL clinical case definition and quality of rK39-RDT testing. © 2015 Diro et al.

PubMed | Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative DNDi Africa, African Population and Health Research Center and International Development Research Center
Type: | Journal: BMC obesity | Year: 2016

As a result of both genetic and environmental factors, the body composition and topography of African populations are presumed to be different from western populations. Accordingly, globally accepted anthropometric markers may perform differently in African populations. In the era of rapid emergence of cardio-vascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, evidence about the performance of these markers in African settings is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-relationships among the four main anthropometric indices in measuring overweight and obesity in an urban poor African setting.Data from a cardiovascular disease risk factor assessment study in urban slums of Nairobi were analyzed. In the major study, data were collected from 5190 study participants. We considered four anthropometric markers of overweight and obesity: Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, Waist to Hip Ratio, and Waist to Height Ratio. Pairwise correlations and kappa statistics were used to assess the relationship and agreement among these markers, respectively. Discordances between the indices were also analyzed.The weighted prevalence of above normal body composition was 21.6% by body mass index, 28.9% by waist circumference, 45.5% by waist to hip ratio, and 38.9% by waist to height ratio. The overall inter-index correlation was +0.44. Waist to hip ratio generally had lower correlation with the other anthropometric indices. High level of discordance exists between body mass index and waist to hip ratio. Combining the four indices shows that 791 (16.1%) respondents had above normal body composition in all four indices. Waist circumference better predicted hypertension and hyperglycemia while waist to height ratio better predicted hypercholesterolemia.There exists a moderate level of correlation and a remarkable level of discordance among the four anthropometric indices with regard to the ascertainment of abnormal body composition in an urban slum setting in Africa. Waist circumference is a better predictor of cardio-metabolic risk.

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