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Ranjha N.M.,Bz University | Ayub G.,Drug Testing Laboratory | Naseem S.,University of Punjab | Ansari M.T.,Bz University
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine | Year: 2010

In the present work crosslinked hydrogels based on chitosan (CS) and acrylic acid (AA) were prepared by free radical polymerization with various feed compositions using N,N methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinking agent. Benzoyl peroxide was used as catalyst. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) confirmed the formation of the crosslinked hydrogels. This hydrogel is formed due to electrostatic interaction between cationic groups in CS and anionic groups in AA. Prepared hydrogels were used for dynamic and equilibrium swelling studies. For swelling behavior, effect of pH, polymeric and monomeric compositions and degree of crosslinking were investigated. Swelling studies were performed in USP phosphate buffer solutions of varying pH 1.2, 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5. Results showed that swelling increased by increasing AA contents in structure of hydrogels in solutions of higher pH values. This is due to the presence of more carboxylic groups available for ionization. On the other hand by increasing the chitosan content swelling increased in a solution of acidic pH, but this swelling was not significant and it is due to ionization of amine groups present in the structure of hydrogel. Swelling decreased with increase in crosslinking ratio owing to tighter hydrogel structure. Porosity and sol-gel fraction were also measured. With increase in CS and AA contents porosity and gel fraction increased, whereas by increasing MBA content porosity decreased and gel fraction increased. Furthermore, diffusion coefficient (D) and the network parameters i.e., the average molecular weight between crosslinks (M c), polymer volume fraction in swollen state (V2s), number of repeating units between crosslinks (Mr) and crosslinking density (q) were calculated using Flory-Rehner theory. Selected samples were loaded with a model drug verapamil. Release of verapamil depends on the ratios of CS/AA, degree of crosslinking and pH of the medium. The release mechanisms were studied by fitting experimental data to model equations and calculating the corresponding parameters. The result showed that the kinetics of drug release from the hydrogels in both pH 1.2 and 7.5 buffer solutions was mainly non-Fickian diffusion. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Methanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica (MEMI) was subjected to bioactivity guided fractionation in order to identify the active antidiabetic constituent. 32 fractions were evaluated for possible 11β-HSD-1 inhibition activity under in vitro conditions. The EA-7/8-9/10-4 fraction was evolved as a most potent fraction among all the fractions and it was identified as well known gallotannin compound 1,2,3,4,6 penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG) by spectral analysis. Based on these results the PGG was further evaluated in ex vivo 11β-HSD-1 inhibition assay and high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes in male C57BL/6 mice. Single dose (10, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) of PGG and carbenoxolone (CBX) have dose dependently inhibited the 11β-HSD-1 activity in liver and adipose tissue. Furthermore, HFD appraisal to male C57BL/6 mice caused severe hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated levels of plasma corticosterone and insulin, increased liver and white adipose mass with increase in body weight was observed compare to normal control. Also, oral glucose tolerance was significantly impaired compare to normal control. Interestingly, post-treatment with PGG for 21 days had alleviated the HFD-induced biochemical alterations and improved oral glucose tolerance compare to HFD-control. In conclusion, the PGG isolated from MEMI inhibits 11β-HSD-1 activity and ameliorates HFD-induced diabetes in male C57BL/6 mice. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Rajendra C.E.,Drug Testing Laboratory
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

Important requirement in the evaluation of herbal drug include the estimation of active constituent. Different factors like climate, altitude, rainfall and other conditions responsible for growth of plants may affect the content of active constituents. Collection of drug from different geographical sources can give useful conditions required for the production of maximum amount of secondary cell constituents. Rauwolfia Samples were collected from four different parts of southern India. HPLC chromatogram was developed for standard reserpine. Different samples were extracted using methanol and extracts were subjected to HPLC analysis to find out the content of Reserpine for preliminary information about the conditions that may influence on production of active constituents. Significant variation in the content of reserpine has been recorded. Source

Nadeem T.,Lahore College for Women University | Qamar F.,Lahore College for Women University | Mehmood K.T.,Drug Testing Laboratory
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research | Year: 2010

Type 1 Diabetes is called Juvenile Diabetes as the onset of it begins in childhood. Children diagnosed with juvenile diabetes are insulin dependent. Current research indicates that juvenile diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. Aim was to assess management, treatment and control of type 1 diabetes in children. This was a retrospective study. A total of 40 patients with type 1 diabetes were observed in the out patient department of The Children's Hospital Lahore between the period of 28 June 2010 to 21 July 2010. Out of 40 patients, 43% taking combination therapy of humulin N and humulin R, 47% showed poor dietary compliance, 39% used to face hypoglycemic attacks between 1-3 per month, 40% showed poor control on diabetes on the basis of Hb1C test. Color of urine of majority of patients (50%) became yellow after performing Benedict's test which showed that most of patients coming to children hospital had high amount of ketones in urine. The daily intake of food should also be monitored. The primary goal of any dietary plan for diabetes is to maintain levels of glucose in the blood. The way of injecting insulin was not as proper as should be and thus the use of insulin injection was ineffective as treatment. Right now, there's no cure for diabetes, so kids with type 1 diabetes will need treatment for the rest of their lives. But with proper care, they can look and feel healthy. Source

Mahmood K.T.,Drug Testing Laboratory | Sara S.,Lahore College for Women University | Shifa H.,Lahore College for Women University
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research | Year: 2011

The dietary habits influencing the risk of acquisition of Helicobacter pylori infection resulting in peptic ulcer are not well established. 30 patients requiring an endoscopy for the evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms had demographic and dietary data collected and biopsy specimens of the gastric antrum stained for the identification of H. pylori. The 50% infected subjects were significantly older than the uninfected ones with no difference in gender, crowding, source of drinking water, or exposure to domestic animals. Increased prevalence of infection was associated with increased consumption of food from street vendors, and decreased consumption of fruits in the subgroup that denied consuming food from street vendors. No association was found with consumption of fish, chicken, beef, beans, vegetables, rice, cheese, milk, and unboiled water. These findings support the role of food prepared under unhygienic conditions as a probable mechanism of transmission of H. pylori in developing countries. Source

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