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Neuman M.G.,Drug Safety and Biotechnology | Neuman M.G.,University of Toronto | French S.W.,University of California at Los Angeles | Casey C.A.,Nebraska Western Iowa Health Care System | And 13 more authors.
Experimental and Molecular Pathology | Year: 2013

Excessive alcohol consumption presents considerable health risks in humans. A variety of morphologic and functional changes contribute to hepatic injury produced by heavy drinking. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of alcohol-induced liver disease and describes preclinical experimental approaches used to understand alcoholic liver disease (ALD), with a particular emphasis on impaired protein and lipid trafficking, disruption of proteolysis and autophagy, alterations in methionine metabolism and perturbations in metabolic signaling that cause dysfunctional gene expression and the eventual formation of aggresomal Mallory-Denk bodies (MDB) in liver cells. These changes eventually lead to some of the more severe hepatic impairments, including alcoholic hepatitis and fibrosis. Moreover the misuse of alcohol contributes to immune dysfunction and inadequate immune response to viral infections. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Nanau R.M.,Drug Safety and Biotechnology | Nanau R.M.,University of Toronto | Delzor F.,Drug Safety and Biotechnology | Delzor F.,University Paul Sabatier | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2014

Ischemic heart disease is the primary cause of death worldwide. The pathophysiological process of cardiovascular diseases is linked to atheromatous plaque formation, while plaque rupture releases thrombogenic elements, which lead to activation of platelets, blood clotting and formation of thrombi. Platelet inhibitors are used to prevent thrombosis. The present systematic review discusses the efficacy of prasugrel in terms of platelet inhibition potential and clinical prevention of cardiovascular outcomes. The balance between reduction of ischemic events as a measure of drug efficacy and the risk of bleeding is reviewed. Other adverse events observed in patients treated with this platelet inhibitor are discussed, including hematological complications, and cutaneous and hepatic idiosyncratic reactions. The complex relationship between prasugrel use and cancer promotion is also described. © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.

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