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Gibbs J.P.,Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism | Fredrickson J.,Pharsight | Barbee T.,Pharsight | Correa I.,Pharsight | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition is a well- characterized treatment for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this model-based meta-analysis was to describe the time course of HbA1c response after dosing with alogliptin (ALOG), saxagliptin (SAXA), sitagliptin (SITA), or vildagliptin (VILD). Publicly available data involving late-stage or marketed DPP-4 inhibitors were leveraged for the analysis. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed to describe the relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and mean response over time. Plots of the relationship between metrics of DPP-4 inhibition (ie, weighted average inhibition [WAI], time above 80% inhibition, and trough inhibition) and response after 12 weeks of daily dosing were evaluated. The WAI was most closely related to outcome, although other metrics performed well. A model was constructed that included fixed effects for placebo and drug and random effects for intertrial variability and residual error. The relationship between WAI and outcome was nonlinear, with an increasing response up to 98% WAI. Response to DPP-4 inhibitors could be described with a single drug effect. The WAI appears to be a useful index of DPP-4 inhibition related to HbA1c. Biomarker to response relationships informed by model-based meta-analysis can be leveraged to support study designs including optimization of dose, duration of therapy, and patient population. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Chen P.,Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism | Chen P.,Amgen Inc. | Vu T.,Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism | Narayanan A.,Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism | And 8 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: To investigate the relationships between AMG 811 exposure, concentration changes in serum IFN-γ, and IFN-γ-induced protein 10 (CXCL10), and to identify important contributions of baseline covariates to these relationships. Methods: A mechanism based pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) model was developed. A target mediated disposition model was used to describe AMG 811 and target IFN-γ interaction. CXCL10 was predicted to be driven by estimated free IFN-γ levels. Results: For an average systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) subject, the linear clearance (CL) of AMG 811 was 0.176 L/day, and the central (Vc) and peripheral (Vp) volumes of distribution were 1.48 and 2.12 L, respectively. Body weight was found to correlate with CL, Vc, Vp, and inter compartment clearance (Q); and age was found to correlate with Vc. The relationship between estimated free serum IFN-γ concentration levels and serum CXCL10 in logarithmic scales was best described by a linear model with slope and intercept estimated to be 0.197 and -0.3, respectively. Conclusions: The largest observed reduction of serum CXCL10 concentration was achieved at the highest AMG 811 dose tested (180 mg SC). This model enables simulations of AMG 811 PK-PD profiles under various dosing regimens to support future clinical studies. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014. Source

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