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Yang C.-Y.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Chen C.-H.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Deng S.-T.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Huang C.-S.,Ministry of Health and Welfare | And 9 more authors.
JAMA Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: Allopurinol, a first-line drug used for treating gout, is increasingly prescribed worldwide to patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and comorbid renal or cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, allopurinol use has been associated with fatal hypersensitivity reactions, including drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The overall risks of allopurinol use remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of, risk factors for, and mortality associated with allopurinol hypersensitivity in new users of allopurinol. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective nationwide population study was conducted using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, which includes detailed medical records of more than 23 million insured enrollees. Data were collected from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2011, using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Among 1 613 719 patients receiving allopurinol prescriptions, 495 863 were identified as new users. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Allopurinol hypersensitivity was identified within 3 months since the first prescription. The period for measuring related hospitalizations was 1 month since the episode, and the period for measuring renal complications or mortality was 2 months since the episode. Poisson regression test and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed, and P <.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Among the more than 23 million insured enrollees, the annual incidence rates were 4.68 per 1000 new users for allopurinol hypersensitivity, 2.02 per 1000 new users for related hospitalization, and 0.39 per 1000 new users for related mortality. The annual incidence of allopurinol hypersensitivity rose statistically significantly during the study period (P <.001). Risk factors for allopurinol hypersensitivity included female sex, age 60 years or older, initial allopurinol dosage exceeding 100 mg/d, renal or cardiovascular comorbidities, and use for treating asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and renal or cardiovascular diseases had statistically significantly increased risk of allopurinol hypersensitivity (odds ratio [OR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.33-1.94; P <.001 for renal diseases and OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.93; P <.001 for cardiovascular diseases). They also had statistically significantly increased risk of mortality (OR, 5.59; 95% CI, 2.61-11.94; P <.001 for renal diseases and OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 2.31-5.51; P <.001 for cardiovascular diseases). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The use of allopurinol in patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia accompanied by renal or cardiovascular diseases statistically significantly increased the risk of hypersensitivity reactions. Physicians should be cautious when prescribing allopurinol to high-risk populations and should consider the potential risks of fatal adverse reactions. Copyright 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

White K.D.,Vanderbilt University | Chung W.-H.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Chung W.-H.,Drug Hypersensitivity Clinical and Research Center | Chung W.-H.,Chang Gung University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Immune-mediated (IM) adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an underrecognized source of preventable morbidity, mortality, and cost. Increasingly, genetic variation in the HLA loci is associated with risk of severe reactions, highlighting the importance of T-cell immune responses in the mechanisms of both B cell-mediated and primary T cell-mediated IM-ADRs. In this review we summarize the role of host genetics, microbes, and drugs in IM-ADR development; expand on the existing models of IM-ADR pathogenesis to address multiple unexplained observations; discuss the implications of this work in clinical practice today; and describe future applications for preclinical drug toxicity screening, drug design, and development. © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Su S.,Drug Hypersensitivity Clinical and Research Center | Chien M.,Taipei Medical University | Lin C.,Chung Shan Medical University | Chen M.,Changhua Christian Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dental Research | Year: 2015

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a common neoplasm that is known to be causally associated with genetic factors and environmental carcinogens. The receptor for advanced glycosylation endproducts (RAGE) is a transmembrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily with broad specificity for multiple ligands, and it has been shown to play vital roles in several pathophysiologic processes, including diabetes, Alzheimer disease, renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The present study aimed to assess the influences of RAGE gene polymorphisms, combined with environmental carcinogens on the predisposition to oral tumorigenesis. Five polymorphisms of the RAGE gene - including 374T>A (rs1800624), 429T>C (rs1800625), 1704G>T (rs184003), Gly82Ser (rs2070600), and a 63-bp deletion allele (407 to 345) - were examined from 592 controls and 618 patients with oral cancer. We found that individuals carrying the polymorphic allele of rs1800625 are more susceptible to oral cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.899; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.355 to 2.661; adjusted OR [AOR], 2.053; 95% CI, 1.269 to 3.345) after adjustment for age, sex, betel nut chewing, and tobacco consumption. Moreover, we observed a significant association of rs1800625 variants with late-stage tumors (stage III/IV, OR, 1.736; 95% CI, 1.126 to 2.677; AOR, 1.771; 95% CI, 1.101 to 2.851) and large-size tumors (>2 cm in the greatest dimension; OR, 1.644; 95% CI, 1.083 to 2.493; AOR, 1.728; 95% CI, 1.089 to 2.741). Based on behavioral exposure of environmental carcinogens, the presence of 4 RAGE single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combined with betel quid chewing and/or tobacco use, greatly augmented the risk of oral cancer. In addition, carriers of particular haplotypes of the 4 RAGE SNPs examined are more prone to develop oral cancer. These results indicate an involvement of RAGE SNP rs1800625 in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma and implicate the interaction between RAGE gene polymorphisms and environmental mutagens as a predisposing factor of oral carcinogenesis. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

Su S.-C.,Drug Hypersensitivity Clinical and Research Center | Chung W.-H.,Drug Hypersensitivity Clinical and Research Center | Chung W.-H.,Chang Gung University
Dermatologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN) are rare but life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), which are mainly induced by a variety of drugs. Once considered to be unpredictable, significant progress has been achieved in understanding the pathological mechanisms underlying such reactions. Recent studies suggested that SJS/TEN is a specific immune reaction where human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles specific for certain drugs in defined populations are involved in the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Upon the activation, various cytotoxic and immunological signals, including but not limited to Fas/Fas ligand, perforin/granzyme B, and granulysin are launched to mediate the disseminated keratinocyte death in SJS/TEN. This review provides an update on the pathobiology of SJS/TEN in both the genomic and immunologic perspectives. The knowledge gained from these cutting-edge studies will form the basis for better prevention and management of SJS/TEN. © 2013, Taiwanese Dermatological Association. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

Cheng C.-Y.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Su S.-C.,Drug Hypersensitivity Clinical and Research Center | Chen C.-H.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | Chen W.-L.,Chang Gung Memorial Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Immunology Research | Year: 2014

T-cell mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions may range from mild rash to severe fatal reactions. Among them, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome/ toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), are some of the most life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs). Recent advances in pharmacogenetic studies show strong genetic associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and susceptibility to drug hypersensitivity. This review summarizes the literature on recent progresses in pharmacogenetic studies and clinical application of pharmacogenetic screening based on associations between SCARs and specific HLA alleles to avoid serious conditions associated with drug hypersensitivity. © 2014 Chi-Yuan Cheng et al.

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