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Annaert P.,Drug Delivery and Disposition | Diczfalusy U.,Karolinska University Hospital
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Aims: We compared the CYP3A4 metrics weight-corrected midazolam apparent oral clearance (MDZ Cl/F/W) and plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol (4β-OHC/C) as they relate to tacrolimus (TAC) Cl/F/W in renal transplant recipients. Methods: For a cohort of 147 patients, 8 h area under the curve (AUC) values for TAC and oral MDZ were calculated besides measurement of 4β-OHC/C. A subgroup of 70 patients additionally underwent intravenous erythromycin breath test (EBT) and were administered the intravenous MDZ probe. All patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and P450 oxidoreductase, among others. Results: MDZ Cl/F/W, 4β-OHC/C/W, EBT and TAC Cl/F/W were all moderately correlated (r = 0.262-0.505). Neither MDZ Cl/F/W nor 4β-OHC/C/W explained variability in TAC Cl/F/W in CYP3A5 expressors (n = 29). For CYP3A5 non-expressors (n = 118), factors explaining variability in TAC Cl/F/W in a MDZ-based model were MDZ Cl/F/W (R2 = 0.201), haematocrit (R2 = 0.139), TAC formulation (R2 = 0.107) and age (R2 = 0.032; total R2 = 0.479). In the 4β-OHC/C/W-based model, predictors were 4β-OHC/C/W (R2 = 0.196), haematocrit (R2 = 0.059) and age (R2 = 0.057; total R2 = 0.312). When genotype information was ignored, predictors of TAC Cl/F/W in the whole cohort were 4β-OHC/C/W (R2 = 0.167), MDZ Cl/F/W (R2 = 0.045); Tac QD formulation (R2 = 0.036), and haematocrit (R2 = 0.032; total R2 = 0.315). 4β-OHC/C/W, but not MDZ Cl/F/W, was higher in CYP3A5 expressors because it was higher in CYP3A4*1b carriers, which were almost all CYP3A5 expressors. Conclusions: A MDZ-based model explained more variability in TAC clearance in CYP3A5 non-expressors. However, 4β-OHC/C/W was superior in a model in which no genotype information was available, likely because 4β-OHC/C/W was influenced by the CYP3A4*1b polymorphism. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.


Meeus J.,Drug Delivery and Disposition | Scurr D.J.,University of Nottingham | Chen X.,University of Nottingham | Amssoms K.,Janssen Pharmaceutical | And 3 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Research | Year: 2015

Purpose: Miscibility of the different compounds that make up a solid dispersion based formulation play a crucial role in the drug release profile and physical stability of the solid dispersion as it defines the phase behaviour of the dispersion. The standard technique to obtain information on phase behaviour of a sample is (modulated) differential scanning calorimetry ((M)DSC). However, for ternary mixtures (M)DSC alone is not sufficient to characterize their phase behaviour and to gain insight into the distribution of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a two-phased polymeric matrix. Methods: MDSC was combined with complementary surface analysis techniques, specifically time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three spray-dried model formulations with varying API/PLGA/PVP ratios were analyzed. Results: MDSC, TOF-SIMS and AFM provided insights into differences in drug distribution via the observed surface coverage for 3 differently composed ternary solid dispersions. Conclusions: Combining MDSC and surface analysis rendered additional insights in the composition of mixed phases in complex systems, like ternary solid dispersions. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Wuyts B.,Drug Delivery and Disposition | Brouwers J.,Drug Delivery and Disposition | Mols R.,Drug Delivery and Disposition | Tack J.,University Hospitals Leuven | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

The present study pursued to profile the intestinal solubility of nine HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) in fasted- and fed-state human intestinal fluids (FaHIF, FeHIF) aspirated from four volunteers. In addition, the ability of fasted- and fed-state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF, FeSSIF) to predict the intestinal solubility was evaluated. All PIs were poorly soluble in FaHIF (from 7μM for ritonavir to 327μM for darunavir) and FeHIF (from 15μM for atazanavir to 409μM for darunavir). For four of nine PIs, food intake significantly enhanced the solubilizing capacity of intestinal fluids (up to 18.4-fold increase for ritonavir). The intersubject variability (average coefficient of variance CVfed = 60.6%, CVfasted = 40.4%) was higher as compared with the intrasubject variability (CVfed = 41.3%, CVfasted = 20.5%). PI solubilities correlated reasonably well between FaSSIF and FaHIF (R = 0.817), but not between FeSSIF and FeHIF (R = 0.617). To conclude, postprandial conditions increased the inter- and intrasubject variability of the PIs. The inability of FeSSIF to accurately predict the FeHIF solubility emphasizes the need for a multivariate approach to determine solubility profiles, taking into account solid-state characteristics, pH, mixed bile acid/phospholipid micelles, and digestive products. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:3800-3807, 2013.


PubMed | Drug Delivery and Disposition and Rega Institute for Medical Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of pharmaceutics | Year: 2015

Compound libraries that are screened for biological activity commonly contain heterocycles. Besides potency, drug-like properties need to be evaluated to ensure in vivo efficacy of test compounds. In this context, we determined hepatic and intestinal disposition profiles for 17 heterocyclic compounds. All studied compounds showed rapid uptake in suspended rat hepatocytes, whereas metabolism was poor and the rate-limiting step in hepatic elimination. In vitro assays demonstrated a relatively low solubility and high intestinal permeability. Based on these in vitro data, heterocycles were categorized in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) to predict disposition characteristics before clinical data are available. Our findings emphasized the importance to use hepatocytes in addition to microsomes to study metabolism, since the latter lack non-microsomal enzymes and cellular context. Moreover, intracellular exposure should be considered to gain insight in the relevant fraction of the compound available at the enzymatic site. Finally, the study reveals discrepancies associated with the classification of heterocycles in BCS versus BDDCS. These probably originate from the binary character of both systems.


PubMed | Drug Delivery and Disposition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmaceutical sciences | Year: 2013

The present study pursued to profile the intestinal solubility of nine HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) in fasted- and fed-state human intestinal fluids (FaHIF, FeHIF) aspirated from four volunteers. In addition, the ability of fasted- and fed-state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF, FeSSIF) to predict the intestinal solubility was evaluated. All PIs were poorly soluble in FaHIF (from 7M for ritonavir to 327M for darunavir) and FeHIF (from 15M for atazanavir to 409M for darunavir). For four of nine PIs, food intake significantly enhanced the solubilizing capacity of intestinal fluids (up to 18.4-fold increase for ritonavir). The intersubject variability (average coefficient of variance CVfed = 60.6%, CVfasted = 40.4%) was higher as compared with the intrasubject variability (CVfed = 41.3%, CVfasted = 20.5%). PI solubilities correlated reasonably well between FaSSIF and FaHIF (R = 0.817), but not between FeSSIF and FeHIF (R = 0.617). To conclude, postprandial conditions increased the inter- and intrasubject variability of the PIs. The inability of FeSSIF to accurately predict the FeHIF solubility emphasizes the need for a multivariate approach to determine solubility profiles, taking into account solid-state characteristics, pH, mixed bile acid/phospholipid micelles, and digestive products.

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