San Raffaele Cimena, Italy
San Raffaele Cimena, Italy

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Nistico S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Nistico S.,University College London | Ventrice D.,CETA | Dagostino C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents | Year: 2013

Superoxide, a reactive form of oxygen, can be produced in vivo either in normal and under pathophysiologic conditions or by photosensitizing chemicals, as during photodynamic treatment. Photodynamic therapies (PDT), widely adopted in Dermatology and Oncology, are known to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and may contribute to structural alterations and oxidatively generated modifications of cellular antioxidants. We hypothesized that over-production of free radicals would decrease the enzymatic activities of endogenous cellular antioxidants. To test this hypothesis, keratinocytes were treated with the photosensitizer Photofrin plus visible light to produce free radicals and CuZnSOD and MnSOD activities were measured. Photodynamic treatment of keratinocytes increases malonylaldehyde production, nitrotyrosine staining and superoxide production. The enzymatic activities of CuZnSOD and MnSOD were significantly decreased after Photofrin plus visible light treatment. Our results suggest that the main cellular antioxidant system can be inactivated by photodynamically generated ROS. Pretreatment of keratinocytes with free radicals scavenger such as Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) was able to restore the endogenous antioxidant system activities, inhibiting the MDA formation, nitrotyrosine staining and superoxide formation. Antioxidant therapy could therefore be a useful tool in protecting healthy epidermal cells against common side effects induced by antitumor targeted therapies. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Muscoli C.,University of Catanzaro | Muscoli C.,Interregional Research Center for Food Safety and Health | Muscoli C.,Drug Center | Dagostino C.,Drug Center | And 16 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2013

Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is fundamental in the development of hyperalgesia. Overactivation of this receptor releases superoxide and nitric oxide that, in turn, forms peroxynitrite (PN). All of these events have been linked to neurotoxicity. The receptors and enzymes involved in the handling of glutamate pathway - specifically NMDARs, glutamate transporter, and glutamine synthase (GS) - have key tyrosine residues which are targets of the nitration process causing subsequent function modification. Our results demonstrate that the thermal hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal administration of NMDA is associated with spinal nitration of GluN1 and GluN2B receptor subunits, GS, that normally convert glutamate into nontoxic glutamine, and glutamate transporter GLT1. Intrathecal injection of PN decomposition catalyst FeTM-4-PyP5+ prevents nitration and overall inhibits NMDA-mediated thermal hyperalgesia. Our study supports the hypothesis that nitration of key proteins involved in the regulation of glutamate transmission is a crucial pathway used by PN to mediate the development and maintenance of NMDA-mediated thermal hyperalgesia. The broader implication of our findings reinforces the notion that free radicals may contribute to various forms of pain events and the importance of the development of new pharmacological tool that can modulate the glutamate transmission without blocking its actions directly. © 2013 Carolina Muscoli et al.

Muscoli C.,University of Catanzaro | Muscoli C.,Interregional Research Center for Food Safety and Health | Muscoli C.,Drug Center | Lauro F.,University of Catanzaro | And 25 more authors.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents | Year: 2014

Morphine and related opioid drugs are currently the major drugs for severe pain. Their clinical utility is limited in the management of severe cancer pain due to the rapid development of tolerance. Restoring opioid efficacy is therefore of great clinical importance. A great body of evidence suggests the key role of free radicals and posttranslational modulation in the development of tolerance to the analgesic activity of morphine. Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between the Mediterranean diet and a reduced incidence of pathologies such as coronary heart disease and cancer. A central hallmark of this diet is the high consumption of virgin olive oil as the main source of fat which contains antioxidant components in the non-saponifiable fraction, including phenolic compounds absent in seed oils. Here, we show that in a rodent model of opiate tolerance, removal of the free radicals with phenolic compounds of olive oil such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein re-instates the analgesic action of morphine. Chronic injection of morphine in mice led to the development of tolerance and this was associated with increased nitrotyrosin and malonildialdeide (MDA) formation together with nitration and deactivation of MnSOD in the spinal cord. Removal of free radicals by hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein blocked morphine tolerance by inhibiting nitration and MDA formation and replacing the MnSOD activity. The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil exerts antioxidant activities in vivo and free radicals generation occurring during chronic morphine administration play a crucial role in the development of opioid tolerance. Our data suggest novel therapeutic approach in the management of chronic cancer pain, in particular for those patients who require long-term opioid treatment for pain relief without development of tolerance. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

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