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Yanggu, South Korea

Jin M.J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Jin M.J.,Hanyang University | Lee J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | In M.K.,Drug Analysis Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2013

CP 47,497, a potent cannabinoid receptor type 1 agonist, is the main active ingredient in the herbal mixture "Spice" sold in European countries. The illegal use of "Spice" for its psychoactive effects has become a social issue. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of CP 47,497 was investigated in human liver microsomes to characterize the metabolic fate of CP 47,497. CP 47,497 was incubated with human liver microsomes, and the reaction mixture was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of eight metabolites were detected in human liver microsomes and structurally characterized based on mass spectral data. The main metabolic pathways involved hydroxylations or oxygenations. The identified metabolites were mono-oxygenated metabolites (M1 and M4), mono-hydroxylated metabolites (M3, M5, M6, M7, and M8), and a di-oxygenated metabolite (M2). The detection of these metabolites could confirm the presence of CP 47,497 in biological samples; therefore, collectively, they would be excellent indicators of "Spice" drug abuse. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source


Kim U.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim U.,Chung - Ang University | Jin M.J.,Hanyang University | Lee J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2012

(6aR,10aR)-9-(Hydroxymethyl)-6,6-dimethyl-3-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen-1-ol (HU-210) is a synthetic cannabinoid, with a classical cannabinoid structure similar to Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9-THC). In this study, the in vitro metabolism of HU-210 was investigated in human liver microsomes to characterize associated phase I metabolites. HU-210 was incubated with human liver microsomes, and the reaction mixture was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. HU-210 was metabolized in human liver microsomes, yielding about 24 metabolites. These metabolites were structurally characterized on the basis of accurate mass analyses and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. The major metabolic route for HU-210 was oxygenation. Metabolites M1-M7 were identified as mono-oxygenated metabolites; M8-M15, mono-hydroxylated metabolites; M16-M20, di-oxygenated metabolites; and M21-M24, di-hydroxylated metabolites. These results provide evidence for in vivo HU-210 metabolism, and they may be applied to the analysis of HU-210 and its relevant metabolites in biological samples. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Jin M.J.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Jin C.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kim J.Y.,Drug Analysis Laboratory | In M.K.,Drug Analysis Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2011

5-Methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT) is a designer hallucinogen derived from tryptamine and is reportedly abused and involved in criminal activities. For the detection of 5-MeO-DIPT use, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for 5-MeO-DIPT and its metabolites, 5-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-OH-DIPT) and 5-methoxy-N,N-isopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-IPT) was developed and validated in rat urine. The urine samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile and introduced into a BDS HYPERSIL C 18 column (50×2.0mm, 5μm) for chromatographic separation. Mobile phases consisted of methanol, water, and 1% formic acid, and gradient elution was used at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. For the MS detection, multiple-reaction monitoring analysis was adopted. The linear range was 0.01-10μg/mL, and the lower limit of quantification was 10ng/mL for all analytes. The intra- and interday accuracies and precisions met the criteria (<15%). The developed method was successfully applied to the drug-treated rat urine. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Source


Kim S.Y.,Yonsei University | Kim J.Y.,Drug Analysis Laboratory | Kwon W.,Drug Analysis Laboratory | In M.K.,Drug Analysis Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2013

In this study, the method for simultaneous determination of amphetamine-type stimulant drugs and cannabinoids using GC-MS was developed for urinalysis. For the improvement of analytical efficiency, tri-fluoroacetic anhydride and pentafluoropropanol were used as derivatization reagents and derivatization conditions such as compositions, reaction time, and temperature were optimized. Also metabolically generated glucuronides such as 11-nor-9-carboxy-δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol were removed through alkaline hydrolysis. The extraction method was optimized by changing the pH of urine and extraction time. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.49-1.71ng/mL as 3 signal-to-noises (s/n) whereas the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 10 s/n was 1.62-5.70ng/mL. Repeatability and reproducibility were obtained as inter-day (n=5), intra-day (n=3), and inter-person (n=3). The measured accuracy ranged as inter-day: -9.0-9.1%, intra-day: -10.2-12.6%, and inter-person: -12.9-8.2%, and the precisions were estimated as inter-day: 0.5-16.1%, intra-day: 2.1-14.2%, and inter-person: 0.8-19.3%. This method was also successfully applied to real samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kim J.Y.,Drug Analysis Laboratory | Shin S.H.,Drug Analysis Laboratory | In M.K.,Drug Analysis Laboratory
Forensic Science International | Year: 2010

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous qualification and quantification of methamphetamine (MA), amphetamine (AP), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-amphetamine (MDA), ketamine (KET) and norketamine (NKT) in fingernails. Fingernail samples (20 mg) were washed with distilled water and methanol, digested with 1.0 M sodium hydroxide at 95 °C for 30 min, and then extracted with ethyl acetate. Extract solutions were evaporated to dryness, derivatized using heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) at 60 °C for 30 min, and analyzed by GC-MS. The linear ranges were 0.1-20.0 ng/mg for AP, MDMA and NKT, 0.2-20.0 ng/mg for MA and MDA, and 0.4-20.0 ng/mg for KET, with the coefficients of determination (r2 ≥ 0.9989). The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 7.1% and 10.6%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracies were -10.9% to 0.8% and -4.3% to 4.5%, respectively. The limits of detections (LODs) and the limits of quantifications (LOQs) for each analyte were lower than 0.094 ng/mg and 0.314 ng/mg, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 72.3-94.9%. The average fingernail growth rates of two subjects for three years and six subjects for two months were 3.12 mm/month and 3.16 mm/month, respectively. The method proved to be suitable also for the simultaneous detection and quantification of MA, MDMA, KET and their metabolites in fingernails. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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