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San Fedele Superiore, Italy

Chinello P.,L Spallanzani National Institute For Infectious Diseases | Cicalini S.,L Spallanzani National Institute For Infectious Diseases | Pichini S.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Pacifici R.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | And 2 more authors.
Current HIV Research | Year: 2012

Sildenafil is increasingly used for the therapy of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in HIV infected patients. However, concerns exist about pharmacokinetic interactions between sildenafil and protease inhibitors (PI); in particular, ritonavir has been shown to increase sildenafil AUC and C max by several folds. The aim of our study was to determine the plasma levels of sildenafil and PI in two HIV patients with PAH treated with antiretroviral therapy including ritonavir-boosted PI. Our patients both experienced sildenafil C max above 500 ng/mL; however, they did not report any significant adverse reactions to sildenafil during the follow-up period. Therapeutic drug monitoring of sildenafil should be taken in consideration during treatment in order to avoid overdosage. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Joya X.,Institute Hospital del Mar dInvestigacions Mediques IMIM | Joya X.,Charles III University of Madrid | Pacifici R.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Salat-Batlle J.,Institute Hospital del Mar dInvestigacions Mediques IMIM | And 5 more authors.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2015

Perinatal exposure to one or more drugs of abuse can affect the neonate temporarily or permanently. In addition to meconium, the evaluation of perinatal exposure to drugs of abuse has been achieved by testing biological matrices coming from the newborn (neonatal hair) and from the pregnant or nursing mother (maternal hair and breast milk). These matrices have the advantage of noninvasive collection and account for a sizable time window of active and passive exposure. Sensitive and specific analytical methods are required to determine minute amounts of drugs of abuse and metabolites in these matrices. The present manuscript reviews the newest analytical methods developed to detect drugs of abuse as well as ethanol biomarkers in maternal and neonatal hair and breast milk. © 2015 Future Science Ltd.

Marchei E.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Palmi I.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Pichini S.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Pacifici R.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | And 5 more authors.
Adicciones | Year: 2016

This study presents the case of a 4-year-old healthy child admitted to the paediatric ward for suspected accidental intoxication due to ingestion of narcoleptic drugs (methylphenidate, sertraline and quetiapine), taken on a regular basis by his 8-year-old brother affected by Asperger syndrome. Intoxication can be objectively assessed by measurements of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices with short-term (blood and urine) or long-term (hair) detection windows. At the hospital, the child’s blood and urine were analysed by immunoassay (confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sertraline and quetiapine and their metabolites were identified. The suspicion that the mother administered drugs chronically prompted the analysis of six, consecutive 2-cm segments of the child’s hair, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, thereby accounting for ingestion over the previous 12 months. Quetiapine was found in the first four segments with a mean concentration of 1.00 ng/mg ± 0.94 ng/mg hair while sertraline and its metabolite, desmethyl-sertraline, were found in all segments with a mean concentration of 2.65 ± 0.94 ng/mg and 1.50 ± 0.94 ng/mg hair, respectively. Hair analyses were negative for methylphenidate and its metabolite (ritalinic acid). Biological matrices testing for psychoactive drugs disclosed both acute and chronic intoxication with quetiapine and sertraline administered by the mother. © 2016, Edita Socidrogalcohol. All rights reserved.

Pacifici R.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Pierantozzi A.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Di Giovannandrea R.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Palmi I.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2013

The Nasorosso project of the Italian Youth Department and the National Institute of Health, aimed to raise awareness about drinking and driving under the influence of alcohol among club goers with a series of initiatives. Within the framework of the project, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on 106,406 individuals before and after clubbing in 66 different recreational sites from 11 Italian provinces, over 16 months. Participating individuals were interviewed regarding sociodemographic and environmental characteristics and alcohol intoxicated people were offered to be taken home. The BAC median at the club entry was 0.26 g/L with 65.3% subjects showing a BAC value under the driving legal limit of 0.5g/L. At the exit from clubs, BAC median value rose to 0.44 g/L and subjects with BAC value under the legal limit decreased to 54.9%. Being male, aged between 18 and 34 years with a diploma, being a drinker and entering the disco with a BAC already beyond the legal limit predicted a BAC value beyond 0.5 g/L at exit from the recreational place. Conversely, being a driver, being a student and exiting from the disco before 4 a.m. reduced the probability of having a BAC higher than 0.5 g/L at the end of the night. Health policies to prevent harmful use of alcohol in young people should continue to offer targeted information/ prevention; in order to steadily increase the awareness of the dangers and the damages of excessive use of alcohol. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Pichini S.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Rotolo M.C.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | Bellotti P.,LAmaca Onlus | Minutillo A.,Drug Abuse and Doping Unit | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2015

A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r2≥0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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