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Subramanyam R.V.,Drs Sudha and Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental science
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2011

Background and Objectives : Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common tobacco-related cancers affecting the Indian population. Various malignancy-grading systems based on different histopathological features have been proposed for OSCC. Due to inherent subjectivity, inter-observer variation and reproducibility of a grading system remains a problem. Grading systems based on nuclear morphometry have been proposed for laryngeal, renal and pharyngeal carcinomas. In this study, an attempt was made to grade oral OSCC based on computer-assisted microscopic evaluation of nuclear features. Our intention was also to evaluate the use of Feulgen stain for studying nuclear features. Materials and Methods: Sections made from buccal mucosa biopsies of normal mucosa as well as different grades OSCC were stained by Feulgen reaction. The nuclear features were evaluated by computer-assisted microscopic image analysis for nuclear area (NA), nuclear perimeter (NP) and nuclear form factor (NF) and correlated with histologic grading of OSCC. Nuclear shape, membrane outline, chromatin clumps, nucleoli, and abnormal mitoses were also evaluated. Results: NA and NP were observed to be significantly increased in OSCC (P < 0.001) when compared with the control group. These values increased in correlation with increasing grades of OSCC. However, NF was found to more in the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It may be concluded from the results that computer-assisted nuclear morphometry is a reliable tool for grading OSCC. A new grading system based on nuclear features for OSCC has been proposed.

Subramanyam R.V.,Drs Sudha and Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental science
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2012

Diagnosis of palatal swellings is a challenge. Benign and malignant tumors may be misinterpreted as lesions of inflammatory origin. We present a case of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma on the palate of a 40-year-old male. A number of factors can make the diagnosis of oral lymphoma difficult. Many lymphomas are extranodal, there is usually a prominent superimposed nonspecific inflammatory response and thus they mimic benign lymphoid hyperplasia. It is important for the pathologist to be familiar with features that distinguish benign from malignant lymphoid proliferations.

PubMed | Drs Sudha And Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute Of Dental Science, Dr Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute Of Medical Science And Research Foundation and Pacific University at Udaipur
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

Lawsonia Inermis (LI) is a shrub cultivated throughout India. Many in vitro studies have been done on antifungal activity of LI, although none of the studies have been conducted invivo.To evaluate the antifungal efficacy of ethanolic extract of crude lawsone in comparison with listerine mouth wash in known diabetics and wearing dentures.A total of 60 subjects were taken and randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Group 1 received crude lawsone mouthwash and Group 2 received listerine mouth wash. Oral rinse technique was performed. Each subject was given distilled water at baseline and Colony Forming Units (CFU) of candidal species was determined. Post therapeutic samples were then collected 1hr and 1week following drug usage and they were further advised to use given mouth washes twice daily with volume of 5ml/rinse for 30 seconds and CFU was evaluated.Crude lawsone mouthwash showed superior antifungal activity when compared to listerine mouthwash. On individual comparison of both mouth washes at baseline, 1hr and 1week highly significant results were obtained using inferential statistics. The inter group comparison was done using independent t-test where lawsone was considered to be more effective in reducing CFU, at 1hr and 1week of using the mouth wash (p<0.01). Subjective symptoms like taste and smell were determined by chi square test where good taste was felt for lawsone and olfactory satisfaction was good with listerine (p<0.01). Burning sensation was found to be more with listerine mouth wash.The present study revealed superior antifungal activity with ethanolic extract of crude lawsone mouth wash compared with listerine mouthwash.

PubMed | Bansal Dental Clinic and Implant Center, Drs Sudha And Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute Of Dental Science, Institute of Dental science Sehora, Institute of Dental science Bhubaneswar and Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of contemporary dental practice | Year: 2016

One of the main aims of orthodontic treatment is the improvement of esthetics along with enhancement of functions of the orofacial regions. Complications are observed even after final completion of the orthodontic treatment due to relapse and loss of stability. Hence, we retrospectively analyzed angle class I malocclusion cases to study the correlation of outcome of orthodontic treatment and posttreatment stability.A total of 100 patients were included in this retrospective analysis, which accounted for the patients reporting to the department of orthodontics from 2013 to 2015 with angle class I malocclusion. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and postretention casts of the patients were made and analyzed. The Richmond et al criteria was used to evaluate peer assessment rating (PAR) index and Little irregularity index, followed by scoring with American weight. Measurement of Pearsons coefficient was done to calculate the p-value. p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant.No significant amount of alteration was seen in the systematic errors of Little index and PAR index, while casual errors were also within the normal range. While comparing the PAR index at pretreatment and posttreatment phases, statistically significant results were obtained, whereas in case of Little index at same time intervals, scores showed nonsignificant results.Even after delivering ideal orthodontic treatment, stability of the treatment is still not ensured until unless posttreatment follow-up is properly maintained.

PubMed | Drs Sudha And Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute Of Dental Science and Government General Hospital GMC
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

In dentistry, extracted human teeth are routinely used to learn technical and preclinical skills. Since human teeth harbour many pathogens these should be disinfected before use to minimize the risk of infections. Some commonly used disinfectants in laboratories are 10% formalin, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl), 70% alcohol and normal saline which have their own disadvantages like carcinogenicity, toxicity, cost effectiveness etc. Many studies have been conducted using these solutions but there is no evidence to suggest a suitable alternative for disinfecting extracted teeth. Vinegar is a sour liquid comprised mainly of acetic acid. It is cheap and commercially available shown to be effective in the prevention and control of microbial contamination.The present study was conducted for evaluation of vinegar as a disinfectant for extracted teeth.In this study a total of 40 (n=40) extracted non carious teeth were taken which were disinfected with various physical methods such as sterilization, autoclaving and chemical methods by using Vinegar, 70% Alcohol, 10% Formalin, 3% Hydrogen peroxide and 5.25% NaOCL. Later, teeth from each group were placed individually in separate test tubes containing 10ml of brain heart infusion broth at 37C for 48 hrs to observe the evidence of growth of microorganisms.Results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Vinegar, 10% Formalin and 3% Hydrogen peroxide were effective. The results were statistically significant with Kruskal-Wallis test value 28.053 and p-value was <0.001.Vinegar can be used as an effective disinfectant for extracted human teeth.

Subramanyam R.V.,Drs Sudha and Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental science
Oral Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Diseases which involve the oral cavity usually derive their names from either Greek or Latin. These terms are customarily based on etiology or description of the lesion. However, because of various reasons, some of these terms are misnomers.Objective: To review commonly encountered misnomers in oral pathology.Conclusions: Most of the misnomers encountered in oral pathology may arise from lack of understanding of underlying etiology, pathogenesis, histopathology, and/or concepts. Some misnomers are due to imprecise translations from word origins, etymological bungles, and/or factual errors. Clinical, histopathological, and/or etymological explanations are used to analyze and elucidate the nature of these misnomers. Alternative terms, where possible, have been suggested. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Subramanyam R.V.,Drs Sudha And Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute Of Dental Science
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2011

Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common ulcers affecting the oral cavity. Though it is known that RAS affects only the lining (non-keratinized) mucosa sparing the masticatory (keratinized) mucosa and is unlikely to be seen in smokers, no concrete explanations have been put forward. A hypothesis is proposed that the keratin layer blocks the ingress of antigens and prevents the occurrence of RAS on masticatory mucosa. Similarly, combustible products of smoking are known to cause keratinization and therefore have a similar effect on the lining mucosa and inhibit its occurrence. In addition, nicotine or its metabolites can result in decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins 1 and 6, and increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. Consequently, there is reduced susceptibility to RAS due to immunosuppression and/or reduction in inflammatory response. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Subramanyam R.V.,Drs Sudha and Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental science
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2013

Background: Reading scientific literature is mandatory for researchers and clinicians. With an overflow of medical and dental journals, it is essential to develop a method to choose and read the right articles. Objective: To outline a logical and orderly approach to reading a scientific manuscript. By breaking down the task into smaller, step-by-step components, one should be able to attain the skills to read a scientific article with ease. Methods: The reader should begin by reading the title, abstract and conclusions first. If a decision is made to read the entire article, the key elements of the article can be perused in a systematic manner effectively and efficiently. A cogent and organized method is presented to read articles published in scientific journals. Conclusion: One can read and appreciate a scientific manuscript if a systematic approach is followed in a simple and logical manner.

PubMed | Drs Sudha and Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dental research, dental clinics, dental prospects | Year: 2016

Background. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between genetic taste sensitivity, dietary preferences and salivary flow rate in 614-year-old children for identification of individuals at higher risk of developing dental caries. Methods. A total of 500 children 614 years of age, of both genders, who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, were included. Propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity test was carried out and the subjects whose perception was bitter were grouped as tasters, whereas those who were unable to perceive any taste were grouped as non-tasters. The 2D:4D ratio was obtained by measuring the length ratio of index finger to ring finger with the help of a digital Vernier caliper. Evaluation of dietary preferences was carried out using a 24-hour dietary recall and accordingly they were categorized as sweet likers and dislikers. The salivary flow rate was estimated by collecting unstimulated saliva by spitting method. Data were analyzed with Students t-test and chi-squared test. Results. The results suggested a positive relation between low digit ratio (2D:4D), non-tasters, sweet likers and high caries index among the participants with a highly significant statistical difference (P 0.000). Tasters had high mean of USSR (0.48) than non-tasters (0.29), which was statistically significant. Conclusion. The present research revealed a positive correlation between all the parameters evaluated. Therefore an individual considered as non-taster by PROP was a sweet liker with low 2D:4D ratio, reduced salivary flow rate and high caries index.

PubMed | Drs Sudha And Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute Of Dental Science and Andhra University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences | Year: 2015

The aim of this article was to report an unusual anatomic variation of mandibular first premolar, with one root and three distinct canals, which leave pulp chamber and merge short of apex to exit as two separate apical foramina. The incidence of three canals existing as two apical foramina has only been documented in the literature by a few case reports. To achieve successful endodontic treatment, the clinician has to identify the different canal configurations and treat them properly.

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