Benson, NC, United States
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Swaan C.M.,DRS Health
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2017

CONTEXT:: During the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in 2014-2015, close cooperation between the curative sector and the public health sector in the Netherlands was necessary for timely identification, referral, and investigation of patients with suspected Ebola virus disease (EVD). OBJECTIVE:: In this study, we evaluated experiences in preparedness among stakeholders of both curative and public health sectors to formulate recommendations for optimizing preparedness protocols. Timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD was used as indicator for preparedness. DESIGN:: In focus group sessions and semistructured interviews, experiences of curative and public health stakeholders about the regional and national process of preparedness and response were listed. Timeliness recordings of all referred patients with suspected EVD (13) were collected from first date of illness until arrival in the referral academic hospital. RESULTS:: Ebola preparedness was considered extensive compared with the risk of an actual patient, however necessary. Regional coordination varied between regions. More standardization of regional preparation and operational guidelines was requested, as well as nationally standardized contingency criteria, and the National Centre for Infectious Disease Control was expected to coordinate the development of these guidelines. For the timeliness of referred patients with suspected EVD, the median delay between first date of illness until triage was 2.0 days (range: 0-10 days), and between triage and arrival in the referral hospital, it was 5.0 hours (range: 2-7.5 hours). In none of these patients Ebola infection was confirmed. CONCLUSIONS:: Coordination between the public health sector and the curative sector needs improvement to reduce delay in patient management in emerging infectious diseases. Standardization of preparedness and response practices, through guidelines for institutional preparedness and blueprints for regional and national coordination, is necessary, as preparedness for emerging infectious diseases needs a multidisciplinary approach overarching both the public health sector and the curative sector. In the Netherlands a national platform for preparedness is established, in which both the curative sector and public health sector participate, in order to implement the outcomes of this study.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ridpath A.,DRS Health
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2017

During 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of 6 hepatitis A cases among food handlers. We describe our decision-making process for public notification, type of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) offered, and lessons learned. For 3 cases, public notification was issued and DOHMH offered only hepatitis A vaccine as PEP. Subsequent outbreaks resulted from 1 case for which no public notification was issued or PEP offered, and 1 for which public notification was issued and PEP was offered too late. DOHMH continues to use environmental assessments to guide public notification decisions and offer only hepatitis A vaccine as PEP after public notification but recognizes the need to evaluate each situation individually. The PEP strategy employed by DOHMH should be considered because hepatitis A vaccine is immunogenic in all age groups, can be obtained by local jurisdictions more quickly, and is logistically easier to administer in mass clinics than immunoglobulin. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provided community health workers (CHWs) with new opportunities, and current efforts develop evidence-based guidelines for CHW integration into clinical teams. This qualitative study documents CHW roles and activities in 3 federally qualified health care centers in southern Arizona. Community health worker clinical roles, activities, and integration varied by health center and were in flux. Integration included complementary roles, scheduled and everyday communications with team members, and documentation in the electronic health records. These findings contribute to evidence-based guidelines for CHW integration into clinical teams that are critical to maximizing CHW contributions to patient health improvements. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

Westra B.L.,DRS Health
CIN - Computers Informatics Nursing | Year: 2017

The purpose of this study was to create information models from flowsheet data using a data-driven consensus-based method. Electronic health records contain a large volume of data about patient assessments and interventions captured in flowsheets that measure the same “thing,” but the names of these observations often differ, according to who performs documentation or the location of the service (eg, pulse rate in an intensive care, the emergency department, or a surgical unit documented by a nurse or therapist or captured by automated monitoring). Flowsheet data are challenging for secondary use because of the existence of multiple semantically equivalent measures representing the same concepts. Ten information models were created in this study: five related to quality measures (falls, pressure ulcers, venous thromboembolism, genitourinary system including catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and pain management) and five high-volume physiological systems: cardiac, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and expanded vital signs/anthropometrics. The value of the information models is that flowsheet data can be extracted and mapped for semantically comparable flowsheet measures from a clinical data repository regardless of the time frame, discipline, or setting in which documentation occurred. The 10 information models simplify the representation of the content in flowsheet data, reducing 1552 source measures to 557 concepts. The amount of representational reduction ranges from 3% for falls to 78% for the respiratory system. The information models provide a foundation for including nursing and interprofessional assessments and interventions in common data models, to support research within and across health systems. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Hacker E.D.,DRS Health
Cancer Nursing | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: Fatigue is highly prevalent after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). It has been described as intense and may last for years following treatment. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study is to compare fatigue, physical activity, sleep, emotional distress, cognitive function, and biological measures in HCT survivors with persistent fatigue (n = 25) with age- and gender-matched healthy controls with occasional tiredness (n = 25). METHODS:: Data were collected using (a) objective, real-time assessments of physical activity and sleep over 7 days; (b) patient-reported fatigue assessments; (c) computerized objective testing of cognitive functioning; and (d) biological measures. Differences between groups were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS:: Survivors of HCT reported increased physical (P < .001), mental (P < .001), and overall (P < .001) fatigue as well as increased anxiety (P < .05) and depression (P < .01) compared with healthy controls. Red blood cell (RBC) levels were significantly lower in HCT survivors (P < .001). Levels of RBC for both groups, however, were in the normal range. Tumor necrosis factor-α (P < .001) and interleukin-6 (P < .05) levels were significantly higher in HCT survivors. CONCLUSIONS:: Persistent fatigue in HCT survivors compared with healthy controls with occasional tiredness is accompanied by increased anxiety and depression along with decreased RBC counts. Elevated tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels may be important biomarkers. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: This study provides preliminary support for the conceptualization of fatigue as existing on a continuum, with tiredness anchoring one end and exhaustion the other. Persistent fatigue experienced by HCT survivors is more severe than the occasional tiredness of everyday life. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

BACKGROUND:: In 2014, it is estimated that 232,670 new cases of breast cancer occurred in the United States. Unilateral or bilateral mastectomy is a frequently chosen option for treating this disease. OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study was to explore, through an in-depth interview process, the lived experience of women immediately following mastectomy when they see their scars for the first time. METHODS:: Purposeful sampling was used until saturation was reached. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 women related to their mastectomy experience. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. RESULTS:: The following 8 themes emerged from the data; lasting impact, personal impact, relational impact, gratitude, support system, coping strategies, timing, and discomfort. CONCLUSIONS:: The results of the study provide evidence that women face ongoing challenges following seeing their mastectomy scars for the first time that is not adequately addressed by healthcare professionals. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Nurses and other healthcare professionals need to gain a better understanding of the difficulties perceived by women following seeing the scars from mastectomy and implement strategies to assist in successful adaptation to the experience. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

Albrecht J.S.,DRS Health
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE:: To estimate rates of emergency department (ED) visits for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) among older adults. We defined possible mild TBI cases to assess underdiagnoses. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional. SETTING:: National sample of ED visits in 2009-2010 captured by the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. PARTICIPANTS:: Aged 65 years and older. MEASUREMENTS:: Mild TBI defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes (800.0x-801.9x, 803.xx, 804.xx, 850.xx-854.1x, 950.1x-950.3x, 959.01) and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 or more or missing, excluding those admitted to the hospital. Possible mild TBI was defined similarly among those without mild TBI and with a fall or motor vehicle collision as cause of injury. We calculated rates of mild TBI and examined factors associated with a diagnosis of mild TBI. RESULTS:: Rates of ED visits for mild TBI were 386 per 100 000 among those aged 65 to 74 years, 777 per 100 000 among those aged 75 to 84 years, and 1205 per 100 000 among those older than 84 years. Rates for women (706/100 000) were higher than for men (516/100 000). Compared with a possible mild TBI, a diagnosis of mild TBI was more likely in the West (odds ratio = 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-5.24) and less likely in the South/Midwest (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.96) than in the Northeast. CONCLUSIONS:: This study highlights an upward trend in rates of ED visits for mild TBI among older adults. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

OBJECTIVE:: To examine whether a traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnosis was associated with increased outpatient service utilization and associated costs among Iraq and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]/Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]/Operation New Dawn [OND]) War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who used Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) care in a 1-year period. SETTING:: N/A. PARTICIPANTS:: OEF/OIF/OND veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD and/or TBI who utilized VHA services during fiscal year 2012 (N = 164 644). DESIGN:: Observational study using VHA administrative data. MAIN MEASURES:: Outpatient VHA utilization (total and by category of care) and associated costs (total and by VA Health Economic Resource Center cost category). RESULTS:: Veterans in the comorbid PTSD/TBI group had significantly more total outpatient appointment than veterans with PTSD but no TBI. This pattern held for all categories of care except orthopedics. The comorbid TBI/PTSD group ($5769) incurred greater median outpatient healthcare costs than the PTSD ($3168) or TBI-alone ($2815) group. CONCLUSIONS:: Co-occurring TBI increases the already high level of healthcare utilization by veterans with PTSD, suggesting that OEF/OIF/OND veterans with comorbid PTSD/TBI have complex and wide-ranging healthcare needs. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bhavnani D.,DRS Health
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2014

CONTEXT:: Treatment completion for tuberculosis (TB) is one of the essential components of TB prevention and control. Delays in treatment completion and incomplete treatment can result in increased transmission, development of drug resistance, and increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding the reasons for poor treatment outcomes may help improve TB control efforts.OBJECTIVE:: To identify those at highest risk and determine the reasons for poor treatment outcomes among TB cases (January 2009-June 2010).DESIGN:: Retrospective analysis.SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:: New York City TB patients eligible to complete treatment within 12 months.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Poisson regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with delayed completion and incomplete treatment compared with completion within 12 months of initiating treatment (timely completion). Reasons for delayed completion and incomplete treatment were summarized.RESULTS:: Of 1008 cases eligible to complete treatment within 12 months, 921 (91%) had timely completion, 48 (5%) had delayed completion, and 39 (4%) had incomplete treatment. Cases with delayed completion and incomplete treatment were more likely to have extrapulmonary TB (adjusted risk ratio = 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.14; and adjusted risk ratio = 3.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-6.44, respectively). Primary reasons for delayed completion were a physicianʼs decision to extend treatment (35%) and interrupted treatment (31%), whereas those for incomplete treatment included lost to care (38%), moved (28%), and refusal to continue treatment (26%).CONCLUSION:: Overall, treatment completion in New York City was high. Patients with delayed completion and incomplete treatment had extrapulmonary disease in common. However, specific reasons suggest that delayed completion may be clinically motivated whereas incomplete treatment may result from social conditions. © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

PURPOSE:: To determine the effectiveness of a pedometer-based telephone lifestyle coaching intervention on weight and physical activity.METHODS:: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 313 patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation in rural and urban Australia. Participants were allocated to a healthy weight (HW) (4 telephone coaching sessions on weight and physical activity) or a physical activity (PA) intervention (2 telephone coaching sessions on physical activity). Weight and physical activity were assessed by self-report at baseline, short-term (6–8 weeks), and medium-term (6–8 months).RESULTS:: More than 90% of participants completed the trial. Over the medium-term, participants in the HW group decreased their weight compared with participants in the PA group (P = .005). Participants in the HW group with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m had a mean weight loss of 1.6 kg compared with participants in the PA-only group who lost a mean of 0.4 kg (P = .015). Short-term, both groups increased their physical activity time, and the PA group maintained this increase at the medium-term.CONCLUSIONS:: Participants in the HW group achieved modest improvements in weight, and those in the PA group demonstrated increased physical activity. Low-contact, telephone-based interventions are a feasible means of delivering lifestyle interventions for underserved rural communities, for those not attending cardiac rehabilitation, or as an adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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