Benson, NC, United States
Benson, NC, United States

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Hacker E.D.,DRS Health
Cancer Nursing | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND:: Fatigue is highly prevalent after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). It has been described as intense and may last for years following treatment. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study is to compare fatigue, physical activity, sleep, emotional distress, cognitive function, and biological measures in HCT survivors with persistent fatigue (n = 25) with age- and gender-matched healthy controls with occasional tiredness (n = 25). METHODS:: Data were collected using (a) objective, real-time assessments of physical activity and sleep over 7 days; (b) patient-reported fatigue assessments; (c) computerized objective testing of cognitive functioning; and (d) biological measures. Differences between groups were examined using multivariate analysis of variance. RESULTS:: Survivors of HCT reported increased physical (P < .001), mental (P < .001), and overall (P < .001) fatigue as well as increased anxiety (P < .05) and depression (P < .01) compared with healthy controls. Red blood cell (RBC) levels were significantly lower in HCT survivors (P < .001). Levels of RBC for both groups, however, were in the normal range. Tumor necrosis factor-α (P < .001) and interleukin-6 (P < .05) levels were significantly higher in HCT survivors. CONCLUSIONS:: Persistent fatigue in HCT survivors compared with healthy controls with occasional tiredness is accompanied by increased anxiety and depression along with decreased RBC counts. Elevated tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels may be important biomarkers. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: This study provides preliminary support for the conceptualization of fatigue as existing on a continuum, with tiredness anchoring one end and exhaustion the other. Persistent fatigue experienced by HCT survivors is more severe than the occasional tiredness of everyday life. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

BACKGROUND:: Currently, there is little guidance available for documenting and executing the change in management goals in the context of incurable hematologic disease. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to improve the transition to palliative care for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) through the development and implementation of a coordinated care plan program. METHODS:: Twenty-three patients with AML who were no longer being treated with curative intent from March 2011 through September 2012 had hematology supportive care plans developed. Patients (n = 7) completed post–care plan implementation questionnaires to determine their level of understanding in relation to the change in treatment intent. Staff completed pre– (n = 26) and post– (n = 19) care plan implementation questionnaires to determine the communication, challenges, and accessibility of changed management goals. RESULTS:: Seventy-seven percent of patients understood palliative care to be the primary team managing their symptoms, with 75% of patients viewing symptom control as the main goal of treatment. Staff findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the communication of treatment goals (53% preimplementation vs 86% postimplementation). Early timing of referrals remains a significant issue. CONCLUSIONS:: Implementing the individualized care plan program was associated with better communication and accessibility of documented palliative treatment goals for patients with AML. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: This study establishes a model of care that addresses symptom and disease burden in end-stage AML and provides valuable insight into the patient and family understanding of treatment intent during this terminal phase. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

BACKGROUND:: In 2014, it is estimated that 232,670 new cases of breast cancer occurred in the United States. Unilateral or bilateral mastectomy is a frequently chosen option for treating this disease. OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study was to explore, through an in-depth interview process, the lived experience of women immediately following mastectomy when they see their scars for the first time. METHODS:: Purposeful sampling was used until saturation was reached. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 women related to their mastectomy experience. The data were analyzed using a phenomenological approach. RESULTS:: The following 8 themes emerged from the data; lasting impact, personal impact, relational impact, gratitude, support system, coping strategies, timing, and discomfort. CONCLUSIONS:: The results of the study provide evidence that women face ongoing challenges following seeing their mastectomy scars for the first time that is not adequately addressed by healthcare professionals. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Nurses and other healthcare professionals need to gain a better understanding of the difficulties perceived by women following seeing the scars from mastectomy and implement strategies to assist in successful adaptation to the experience. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

BACKGROUND:: Although cancer in indigenous populations is receiving increased research attention, there is a gap in understanding the particular experiences of Aboriginal men. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study is to integrate a range of primary and secondary accounts of the experiences of Aboriginal men in engaging with a cancer diagnosis and treatment in Australia. METHODS:: Secondary analysis of qualitative interviews (n = 54) conducted between 2008 and 2011 revealed recurrent themes regarding the cancer experiences of Aboriginal men in a subset of participant interviews (n = 23). The analysis reports themes that spanned the accounts of Aboriginal men with cancer (n = 6) and those of their carers (n = 12) and clinicians (n = 5). RESULTS:: Recurrent beliefs about the cancer experiences of Aboriginal men included that they “avoid seeking help” for health matters, including cancer symptoms, and to “get on with it,” “not talk about it,” and “manage without fuss” after a cancer diagnosis. Although some men described having to “accept vulnerability,” emphasis was placed on appreciating men’s desire to “protect cultural roles” and “connect with family and culture” throughout care and treatment, including through humor. CONCLUSIONS:: Men’s accounts of the experiences of cancer diagnosis and care reveal more than simply individual challenge, extending to encompass the very real social and economic implications of illness and vulnerability for Aboriginal men today. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: Aboriginal men could be better engaged with cancer diagnosis and treatment if greater attention was paid to recognizing preferred approaches, including pragmatism and humor, and supporting connections to family and culture throughout the cancer journey. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved

Albrecht J.S.,DRS Health
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE:: To estimate rates of emergency department (ED) visits for mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) among older adults. We defined possible mild TBI cases to assess underdiagnoses. DESIGN:: Cross-sectional. SETTING:: National sample of ED visits in 2009-2010 captured by the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. PARTICIPANTS:: Aged 65 years and older. MEASUREMENTS:: Mild TBI defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes (800.0x-801.9x, 803.xx, 804.xx, 850.xx-854.1x, 950.1x-950.3x, 959.01) and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 or more or missing, excluding those admitted to the hospital. Possible mild TBI was defined similarly among those without mild TBI and with a fall or motor vehicle collision as cause of injury. We calculated rates of mild TBI and examined factors associated with a diagnosis of mild TBI. RESULTS:: Rates of ED visits for mild TBI were 386 per 100 000 among those aged 65 to 74 years, 777 per 100 000 among those aged 75 to 84 years, and 1205 per 100 000 among those older than 84 years. Rates for women (706/100 000) were higher than for men (516/100 000). Compared with a possible mild TBI, a diagnosis of mild TBI was more likely in the West (odds ratio = 2.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-5.24) and less likely in the South/Midwest (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.96) than in the Northeast. CONCLUSIONS:: This study highlights an upward trend in rates of ED visits for mild TBI among older adults. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Belanger H.G.,DRS Health
Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVE:: To examine the utility of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI)—a measure of postconcussion symptoms used within the Veterans Health Administration—as an index of rehabilitation outcome. SETTING:: Veterans Administration Polytrauma Rehabilitation Centers Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Model Systems program. PARTICIPANTS:: A total of 159 Veterans (14% with mild TBI; 86% with moderate-severe TBI). MAIN MEASURES:: Disability Rating Scale; Functional Independence Measure; Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended; NSI; Participation Assessment with Recombined Tools–Objective; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist–Civilian Version; Satisfaction With Life Scale; Supervision Rating Scale. ANALYSES:: Correlations and exploratory factor analyses examined the interrelations among outcome measures. Hierarchical regression analyses were utilized to determine if the NSI predicted rehabilitation outcome measures after controlling for demographic variables, TBI severity, and time since injury. NSI reliable changes from pretreatment to 1-year follow-up were examined. Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were conducted to evaluate the ability of changes in the NSI to predict meaningful change in functioning and employment status. RESULTS:: The NSI correlated with psychological distress measures. The NSI administered prior to brain injury rehabilitation had limited predictive utility beyond satisfaction with life. A minority of patients (32%) demonstrated reliable changes on the NSI from baseline to 1-year follow-up. Changes on the NSI were not predictive of meaningful change in employment or functioning. CONCLUSION:: The NSI was not useful for assessing meaningful change in a sample of mixed severity TBI patients. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

OBJECTIVE:: To examine whether a traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnosis was associated with increased outpatient service utilization and associated costs among Iraq and Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]/Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]/Operation New Dawn [OND]) War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who used Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) care in a 1-year period. SETTING:: N/A. PARTICIPANTS:: OEF/OIF/OND veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD and/or TBI who utilized VHA services during fiscal year 2012 (N = 164 644). DESIGN:: Observational study using VHA administrative data. MAIN MEASURES:: Outpatient VHA utilization (total and by category of care) and associated costs (total and by VA Health Economic Resource Center cost category). RESULTS:: Veterans in the comorbid PTSD/TBI group had significantly more total outpatient appointment than veterans with PTSD but no TBI. This pattern held for all categories of care except orthopedics. The comorbid TBI/PTSD group ($5769) incurred greater median outpatient healthcare costs than the PTSD ($3168) or TBI-alone ($2815) group. CONCLUSIONS:: Co-occurring TBI increases the already high level of healthcare utilization by veterans with PTSD, suggesting that OEF/OIF/OND veterans with comorbid PTSD/TBI have complex and wide-ranging healthcare needs. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bhavnani D.,DRS Health
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice | Year: 2014

CONTEXT:: Treatment completion for tuberculosis (TB) is one of the essential components of TB prevention and control. Delays in treatment completion and incomplete treatment can result in increased transmission, development of drug resistance, and increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding the reasons for poor treatment outcomes may help improve TB control efforts.OBJECTIVE:: To identify those at highest risk and determine the reasons for poor treatment outcomes among TB cases (January 2009-June 2010).DESIGN:: Retrospective analysis.SETTING/PARTICIPANTS:: New York City TB patients eligible to complete treatment within 12 months.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Poisson regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with delayed completion and incomplete treatment compared with completion within 12 months of initiating treatment (timely completion). Reasons for delayed completion and incomplete treatment were summarized.RESULTS:: Of 1008 cases eligible to complete treatment within 12 months, 921 (91%) had timely completion, 48 (5%) had delayed completion, and 39 (4%) had incomplete treatment. Cases with delayed completion and incomplete treatment were more likely to have extrapulmonary TB (adjusted risk ratio = 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.14; and adjusted risk ratio = 3.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.73-6.44, respectively). Primary reasons for delayed completion were a physicianʼs decision to extend treatment (35%) and interrupted treatment (31%), whereas those for incomplete treatment included lost to care (38%), moved (28%), and refusal to continue treatment (26%).CONCLUSION:: Overall, treatment completion in New York City was high. Patients with delayed completion and incomplete treatment had extrapulmonary disease in common. However, specific reasons suggest that delayed completion may be clinically motivated whereas incomplete treatment may result from social conditions. © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

PURPOSE:: To determine the effectiveness of a pedometer-based telephone lifestyle coaching intervention on weight and physical activity.METHODS:: A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 313 patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation in rural and urban Australia. Participants were allocated to a healthy weight (HW) (4 telephone coaching sessions on weight and physical activity) or a physical activity (PA) intervention (2 telephone coaching sessions on physical activity). Weight and physical activity were assessed by self-report at baseline, short-term (6–8 weeks), and medium-term (6–8 months).RESULTS:: More than 90% of participants completed the trial. Over the medium-term, participants in the HW group decreased their weight compared with participants in the PA group (P = .005). Participants in the HW group with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m had a mean weight loss of 1.6 kg compared with participants in the PA-only group who lost a mean of 0.4 kg (P = .015). Short-term, both groups increased their physical activity time, and the PA group maintained this increase at the medium-term.CONCLUSIONS:: Participants in the HW group achieved modest improvements in weight, and those in the PA group demonstrated increased physical activity. Low-contact, telephone-based interventions are a feasible means of delivering lifestyle interventions for underserved rural communities, for those not attending cardiac rehabilitation, or as an adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

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