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Kaurani L.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Vishal M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kumar D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sharma A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | And 13 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2014

Purpose. Large copy number variations (CNV) can contribute to increased burden for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide burden of large CNVs > 100 kb in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a neurodegenerative disease of the eye that is the largest cause of irreversible blindness. Methods. Genome-wide analysis of CNVs > 100 kb were analyzed in a total of 1720 individuals, including an Indian cohort (347 POAG cases and 345 controls) and a Caucasian cohort (624 cases and 404 controls). All the CNV data were obtained from experiments performed on Illumina 660W-Quad (infinium) arrays. Results. We observed that for both the populations CNVs > 1 Mb was significantly enriched for gene-rich regions unique to the POAG cases (P < 10-11). In the Indian cohort CNVs > 1 Mb (39 calls) in patients influenced 125 genes while in controls 31 such CNVs influenced only 5 genes with no overlap. In both cohorts we observed 1.9-fold gene enrichment in patients for deletions compared to duplications, while such a bias was not observed in controls (0.3-fold). Overall duplications > 1 Mb were more than deletions (Del/Dup = 0.82) confirming that the enrichment of gene-rich deletions in patients was associated with the disease. Of the 39 CNVs > 1 Mb from Indian patients, 28 (72%) also were implicated in other neurodegenerative disorders, like autism, schizophrenia, sensorineural hearing loss, and so forth. We found one large duplication encompassing CNTN4 gene in Indian and Caucasian POAG patients that was absent in the controls. Conclusions. To our knowledge, our study is the first report on large CNV bias for gene-rich regions in glaucomatous neurodegeneration, implicating its impact across populations of contrasting ethnicities. We identified CNTN4 as a novel candidate gene for POAG. © 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


PubMed | CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Dristi Pradip, Premas Biotech Pvt. Ltd, National Institute of Biomedical Genomics and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC medical genomics | Year: 2016

Glaucoma is the largest cause of irreversible blindness affecting more than 60 million people globally. The disease is defined as a gradual loss of peripheral vision due to death of Retinal Ganglion Cells (RGC). The RGC death is largely influenced by the rate of aqueous humor production by ciliary processes and its passage through the trabecular meshwork (TM) in the anterior part of the eye. Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common subtype, is a genetically complex disease. Multiple genes and many loci have been reported to be involved in POAG but taken together they explain less than 10 % of the patients from a genetic perspective warranting more studies in different world populations. The purpose of this study was to perform genome-wide search for common variants associated with POAG in an east-Indian population.The study recruited 746 POAG cases and 697 controls distributed into discovery and validation cohorts. In the discovery phase, genome-wide genotype data was generated on Illumina Infinium 660 W-Quad platform and the significant SNPs were genotyped using Illumina GGGT assay in the second phase. Logistic regression was used to test association in the discovery phase to adjust for population sub-structure and chi-square test was used for association analysis in validation phase. Publicly available expression dataset for trabecular meshwork was used to check for expression of the candidate gene under cyclic mechanical stress. Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments were performed in human TM cells and murine eye, respectively to check for expression of the candidate gene.Meta-analysis of discovery and validation phase data revealed the association of rs7916852 in MPP7 gene (p = 5.7x10(-7)) with POAG. We have shown abundant expression of MPP7 in the HTM cells. Expression analysis shows that upon cyclic mechanical stress MPP7 was significantly down-regulated in HTM (Fold change: 2.6; p = 0.018). MPP7 protein expression was also found to be enriched in the ciliary processes of the murine eye.Using a genome-wide approach we have identified MPP7 as a novel candidate gene for POAG with evidence of its expression in relevant ocular tissues and dysregulation under mechanical stress possibly mimicking the disease scenario.


PubMed | University of Calcutta, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Shiv Nadar University and Dristi Pradip
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2014

Large copy number variations (CNV) can contribute to increased burden for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide burden of large CNVs > 100 kb in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a neurodegenerative disease of the eye that is the largest cause of irreversible blindness.Genome-wide analysis of CNVs > 100 kb were analyzed in a total of 1720 individuals, including an Indian cohort (347 POAG cases and 345 controls) and a Caucasian cohort (624 cases and 404 controls). All the CNV data were obtained from experiments performed on Illumina 660W-Quad (infinium) arrays.We observed that for both the populations CNVs > 1 Mb was significantly enriched for gene-rich regions unique to the POAG cases (P < 10(-11)). In the Indian cohort CNVs > 1 Mb (39 calls) in patients influenced 125 genes while in controls 31 such CNVs influenced only 5 genes with no overlap. In both cohorts we observed 1.9-fold gene enrichment in patients for deletions compared to duplications, while such a bias was not observed in controls (0.3-fold). Overall duplications > 1 Mb were more than deletions (Del/Dup = 0.82) confirming that the enrichment of gene-rich deletions in patients was associated with the disease. Of the 39 CNVs > 1 Mb from Indian patients, 28 (72%) also were implicated in other neurodegenerative disorders, like autism, schizophrenia, sensorineural hearing loss, and so forth. We found one large duplication encompassing CNTN4 gene in Indian and Caucasian POAG patients that was absent in the controls.To our knowledge, our study is the first report on large CNV bias for gene-rich regions in glaucomatous neurodegeneration, implicating its impact across populations of contrasting ethnicities. We identified CNTN4 as a novel candidate gene for POAG.


Banerjee D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Bhattacharjee A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ponda A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sen A.,Dristi Pradip | Ray K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute
Molecular Vision | Year: 2012

Purpose: Mutations in the myocilin gene (MYOC) account for 2%-4% of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) cases. To date, a limited number of Indian POAG patients have been analyzed for the contribution of the gene towards the disease pathogenesis. In this study we provided a comprehensive analysis of a total of 765 eastern Indian POAG patients. Methods: In the present study 450 POAG patients and 208 ethnically matched controls were screened for the coding region of MYOC by using the polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing approach; 315 POAG patients were analyzed in a previous study. Thus, our total patient cohort considering both the studies was 765. In addition, 1 kb upstream region of the gene was also examined for variants in a subset of 250 patients and 100 control samples. Results: Analysis of MYOC coding regions in 450 POAG patients revealed 10 novel variations including 2 frame-shift (R125SfsX158 and D273DfsX344) and 3 nonsynonymous changes (Arg33Lys, Ser331Leu, and Asp395Glu), 3 reported mutations and 4 reported polymorphisms. Gln48His, which has to date been reported only from Indian subcontinent, was identified in 4 individuals among 450 patients, taking the count to 7 individuals among 765 patients harboring the same mutation in eastern Indian cohort. Screening of 1 kb upstream region of MYOC in limited number of individuals yielded 5 variants but none are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Conclusions: MYOC mutations were found to account for 3% of POAG cases in our entire cohort (n=765) and Gln48His is the most common defect. This study, for the first time, reports the presence of deletion mutations in Indian patients, and represents the largest study performed in a single cohort in the Indian population. © 2012 Molecular Vision.


Banerjee D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Banerjee D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Banerjee A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Banerjee A.,Bangabasi College | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a multi-factorial optic disc neuropathy characterized by accelerating damage of the retinal ganglion cells and atrophy of the optic nerve head. The vulnerability of the optic nerve damage leading to POAG has been postulated to result from oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of the mitochondrial genomic variants in 101 patients and 71 controls by direct sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome. The number of variable positions in the mtDNA with respect to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS), have been designated "Segregating Sites". The segregating sites present only in the patients or controls have been designated "Unique Segregating Sites (USS)". The population mutation rate (θ = 4Neμ) as estimated by Watterson's θ (θw), considering only the USS, was significantly higher among the patients (p = 9.8×10-15) compared to controls. The difference in θw and the number of USS were more pronounced when restricted to the coding region (p<1.31×10-21 and p = 0.006607, respectively). Further analysis of the region revealed non-synonymous variations were significantly higher in Complex I among the patients (p = 0.0053). Similar trends were retained when USS was considered only within complex I (frequency 0.49 vs 0.31 with p<0.0001 and mutation rate p-value <1.49×10-43) and ND5 within its gene cluster (frequency 0.47 vs 0.23 with p<0.0001 and mutation rate p-value <4.42×10-47). ND5 is involved in the proton pumping mechanism. Incidentally, glaucomatous trabecular meshwork cells have been reported to be more sensitive to inhibition of complex I activity. Thus mutations in ND5, expected to inhibit complex I activity, could lead to generation of oxidative stress and favor glaucomatous condition. © 2013 Banerjee et al.


Mookherjee S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Banerjee D.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Chakraborty S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Banerjee A.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | And 3 more authors.
BMC Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: Recent studies suggest that glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease in which secondary degenerative losses occur after primary insult by raised Intraocular pressure (IOP) or by other associated factors. It has been reported that polymorphisms in the IL1A and IL1B genes are associated with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG). The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of these polymorphisms in eastern Indian POAG patients.Methods: The study involved 315 unrelated POAG patients, consisting of 116 High Tension Glaucoma (HTG) patients with intra ocular pressure (IOP) > 21 mmHg and 199 non-HTG patients (presenting IOP < 20 mmHg), and 301 healthy controls from eastern India. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): IL1A (-889C/T; rs1800587), IL1B (-511C/T; rs16944) and IL1B (3953C/T; rs1143634). Haplotype frequency was determined by Haploview 4.1 software. The association of individual SNPs and major haplotypes was evaluated using chi-square statistics. The p-value was corrected for multiple tests by Bonferroni method.Results: No significant difference was observed in the allele and genotype frequencies for IL1A and IL1B SNPs between total pool of POAG patients and controls. However, on segregating the patient pool to HTG and non-HTG groups, weak association was observed for IL1A polymorphism (-889C/T) where -889C allele was found to portray risk (OR = 1.380; 95% CI = 1.041-1.830; p = 0.025) for non-HTG patients. Similarly, 3953T allele of IL1B polymorphism (+3953C/T) was observed to confer risk to HTG group (OR = 1.561; 95% CI = 1.022-2.385; p = 0.039). On haplotype analysis it was observed that TTC was significantly underrepresented in non-HTG patients (OR = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.356- 0.815; p = 0.003) while TCT haplotype was overrepresented in HTG patients (OR = 1.784; 95% CI = 1.084- 2.937; p = 0.022) compared to control pool. However, after correction for multiple tests by Bonferroni method, an association of only TTC haplotype with non-HTG cases sustained (pcorrected= 0.015) and expected to confer protection.Conclusion: The study suggests that the genomic region containing the IL1 gene cluster influences the POAG pathogenesis mostly in non-HTG patients in eastern India. A similar study in additional and larger cohorts of patients in other population groups is necessary to further substantiate the observation. © 2010 Mookherjee et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Vishal M.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sharma A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Sharma A.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR | Kaurani L.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

INK4 locus at chromosome 9p21 has been reported to be associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and its subtypes along with the associated optic disc parameters across the populations of European, Japanese and African ancestries. The locus encodes three tumor suppressor genes namely CDKN2A, ARF, CDKN2B and a long non-coding RNA CDKN2B-AS1 (also known as ANRIL). Here, we report association study of 34 SNPs from INK4 locus with POAG in a population of Indo-European ancestry from the eastern part of India (350 patients and 354 controls). With 81% power to detect genetic association we observed only nominal association of rs1011970 (uncorrected p = 0.048) with POAG and rs10120688 (uncorrected p = 0.048) in patients without a high intra-ocular pressure (IOP<21 mm of Hg) compared to controls. This study, in contrast to the previous reports, suggests lack of significant genetic association of INK4 locus with POAG in East Indian population which needs to be replicated in larger studies in diverse world populations.


Basu K.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | Sen A.,Dristi Pradip | Ray K.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Ghosh I.,Jawaharlal Nehru University | And 2 more authors.
Disease Markers | Year: 2012

Hyaluronan (HA) plays a significant role in maintaining aqueous humor outflow in trabecular meshwork, the primary ocular tissue involved in glaucoma. We examined potential association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HA synthesizing gene-hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1) and HA catabolic gene hyaluronidase 3 (HYAL3) in the primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients in the Indian population. Thirteen tagged SNPs (6 for HAS2, 3 for HABP1 and 4 for HYAL3) were genotyped in 116 high tension (HTG), 321 non-high tension glaucoma (NHTG) samples and 96 unrelated, age-matched, glaucoma-negative, control samples. Allelic and genotypic association were analyzed by PLINK v1.04; haplotypes were identified using PHASE v2.1 and gene-gene interaction was analyzed using multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) v2.0. An allelic association (rs6651224; p= 0.03; OR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.25-0.94) was observed at the second intron (C>G) of HAS2 both for NHTG and HTG. rs1057308 revealed a genotypic association (p=0.03) at the 5' UTR of HAS2 with only HTG. TCT haplotype (rs1805429-rs2472614-rs8072363) in HABP1 and TTAG and TTGA (rs2285044-rs3774753-rs1310073-rs1076872) in HYAL3 were found to be significantly high (p< 0.05) both for HTG and NHTG compared to controls. Gene-gene interaction revealed HABP1 predominantly interacts with HAS2 in HTG while it associates with both HYAL3 and HAS2 in NHTG. This is the first genetic evidence, albeit from a smaller study, that the natural polymorphisms in the genes involved in hyaluronan metabolism are potentially involved in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. © 2012-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Mookherjee S.,Indian Institute of Science | Mookherjee S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Chakraborty S.,Indian Institute of Science | Vishal M.,Indian Institute of Science | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Vision | Year: 2011

Purpose: Glaucoma is a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies with a complex genetic basis. To date, only the following four genes have been identified: viz. myocilin (MYOC), optineurin (OPTN), WD repeat domain 36 (WDR36), and neurotrophin 4 (NTF4). However, there are conflicting reports regarding the involvement of WDR36 in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). In the Asian population, mutations in WDR36 appear to play a minor role in POAG pathogenesis but polymorphic variants have been found to be associated with POAG, especially in patients with high tension glaucoma (HTG). The purpose of this study is to determine the role of WDR36 in East Indian POAG patients. To date, no other studies have yet examined this role. Methods: Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1971050, rs1993465, rs13153937, rs10038177, rs11241095, rs10043631, rs10038058, rs10491424, rs17553936, and rs13186912) spanning almost the entire WDR36 gene were selected and their association with eastern Indian POAG patients was evaluated. Our study pool consisted of 323 POAG patients. Of these 116 were patients who had HTG with intraocular perssure (IOP) >21mmHg and 207 were found to be non-HTG patients (presenting IOP<21mmHg). The study also included 303 participants as controls. The polymorphisms were genotyped in both the patients and the controls using the PCR-RFLP method. Moreover, the SNP that showed significant association was validated by DNA sequencing. The haplotypes were obtained using Haploview 4.1 software. The allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between the patient group and the control group using Pearson's χ 2 test. Results: First, we genotyped the selected SNPs in the 323 POAG patients and 119 of the participants in the control group, in which only rs10038177 (c.710+30C>T) was found to be strongly associated with the HTG cases (OR=2.186; 95% CI=1.458-3.277; p=1.4×10 -4). To increase the significance of the study, the SNP was genotyped in an additional 184 of the participants in the control group and it was observed that the SNP retained the association (OR=1.216; 95% CI=1.064- 2.306; p=0.002). However, no haplotype was found to have any sustainable association with POAG. Based on the LD pattern and location of rs10038177, exon 5 of WDR36 was sequenced but no suspected disease-causing variant was detected. Conclusions: Our study suggests a possible association between WDR36 SNP in a cohort of eastern Indian POAG patients who also have high intraocular pressure (IOP). This study needs to be further validated in a larger patient cohort. © 2011 Molecular Vision.


Mookherjee S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Mookherjee S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Banerjee D.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Banerjee D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 5 more authors.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers | Year: 2016

Aims: Dysregulation of the immune system has previously been implicated in glaucoma pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the potential association of SNPs in the IL1 gene cluster, consisting of nine genes, with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases. These cases presented with low to normal intraocular pressures (<20 mmHg), and are referred to as non-high tension glaucoma (non-HTG) cases. Materials and Methods: In this biphasic study, the discovery phase was conducted with 198 non-HTG cases and 112 controls from eastern India. A total of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the IL1 nine-gene cluster region were genotyped using the MALDI-TOF based Sequenom platform. SNPs, which were found to be significantly associated with non-HTG cases in the first phase of the study, were further genotyped by Sanger sequencing in a replication cohort consisting of 194 non-HTG cases and 242 controls. Results: In the discovery phase, two nonsynonymous SNPs (rs3811046 and rs3811047), located in the IL1F7 gene and in an intergenic region, respectively were found to be weakly associated with non-HTG cases. However, the association was not sustained in the replication cohort. Conclusion: Our study did not reveal any reproducible association of SNPs in the IL1 gene cluster with POAG. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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