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Hadi S.A.,Postgraduate Certificate in Oral Implantology 2010 | Ashfaq N.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Bey A.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Khan S.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital
Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Oral implantology (implant dentistry) is the science and discipline concerned with the diagnosis, design, insertion, restoration, and/or management of alloplastic or autogenous oral structure to restore the loss of contour, comfort, function, esthetic, speech, and/or health of the partially or completely edentulous patient. Osseointegration, a term coined by Branemark and co-workers in early 1960s, represents a direct connection between bone and implant without interposed soft tissue layers. The aim of the present review is to discuss various factors responsible for loss of oral implants. The factors contributing to failure of osseointegration have been identified as medical status of the patient, smoking, bone quality, bone grafting, irradiation, bacterial contamination, lack of preoperative antibiotics, degree of surgical trauma, and operator experience. Furthermore, it appears that implant surface properties, roughness and premature loading influence the failure pattern. Source


Bey A.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Gupta N.D.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Khan S.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Ashfaq N.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Hadi S.A.,Postgraduate Student
Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Low birth weight (LBW) infants are those that weigh less than 2500g at the time of birth. They are 40 times more likely to die than normal weight infants are. The primary cause of LBW babies is preterm labor or premature rupture of membranes. Factors such as smoking, alcohol or drug abuse during pregnancy, inadequate prenantal care, race, low socio-economic status, hypertension, high or low maternal age, diabetes and chronic maternal infection, increase the risk of LBW babies. Periodontitis is a remote gram-negative infection that may play a role in LBW. Periodontopathic microorganisms and their products have wide range of effects mediated through host cytokine production in target cells. Many combined animal studies and data supporting plausible biological mechanisms suggest that periodontal infection has a negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. Source


Kumar A.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Mukhtar-Un-Nisar S.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Zia A.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital
Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

The science of tissue engineering aims at the repair of damaged tissues as well as creates replacement of the lost ones. This is becoming a major component of the regenerative medicine by combining the principles of transplantation, materials science and bioengineering to restore a diseased or a damaged tissue to normal function. The earliest attempts at tissue replacement thousands of years back involved teeth and even in modern times, dentistry has continued to place considerable emphasis on the study and use of biocompatible materials. For most of the general dental practitioners restoration of lost tooth tissue, whether from disease or trauma, represents a significant proportion of their daily routine. Considering the current prevalence of the dental diseases, it can be said that the challenge and resource burden of restoring lost tooth tissue will be with us for many years to come. Tissue engineering will have a considerable effect on dental practice during the next coming years. The greatest effects will likely be related to the repair and replacement of mineralized tissues, the promotion of oral wound healing, correction of craniofacial abnormalities, integration of biocompatible prosthetic implant materials with the oral tissues, the regeneration of dental hard and soft tissues and the use of gene transfer adjunctively. The purpose of this brief review is to provide the general dental practitioner a background of tissue engineering, its accomplishments in dentistry and its future promises to the profession in the form of regenerative dentistry. Source


Zia A.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Khan S.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Bey A.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Gupta N.D.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital | Mukhtar-Un-Nisar S.,Dr Za Dental College And Hospital
Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Periodontitis is a disease characterized by loss of connective tissue attachment and bone around the teeth in conjunction with the formation of periodontal pockets due to the apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Early diagnosis and treatment of progressive periodontitis is important because of the irreversible nature of this disease The long-term aim is that treatment and prevention of periodontal disease will be founded on diagnostic tests based on aetiopathogenic factors rather than just clinical experience. Clinical measurements used in diagnosis of periodontal diseases are often of limited usefulness in that they are indications of previous periodontal disease rather than the present disease activity. Biochemical mediators in oral fluids like saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) are highly beneficial in the determination of current periodontal status. These substances known as biomarkers help in determination of inflammatory mediator levels, as they are good indicators of inflammatory activity. This review highlights recent advances in the use of salivary and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarker-based disease diagnostics that focus on the identification of active periodontal disease. Source

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