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Solan, India

Hilbert M.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | Voll L.M.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Ding Y.,Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology | Hofmann J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | And 2 more authors.
New Phytologist

Beneficial effects elicited by the root endophyte Piriformospora indica are widely known, but the mechanism by which these are achieved is still unclear. It is proposed that phytohormones produced by the fungal symbiont play a crucial role in the interaction with the plant roots. Biochemical analyses of the underlying biosynthetic pathways for auxin production have shown that, on tryptophan feeding, P. indica can produce the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA) through the intermediate indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA). Time course transcriptional analyses after exposure to tryptophan designated the piTam1 gene as a key player. A green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter study and transcriptional analysis of colonized barley roots showed that piTam1 is induced during the biotrophic phase. Piriformospora indica strains in which the piTam1 gene was silenced via an RNA interference (RNAi) approach were compromised in IAA and ILA production and displayed reduced colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots in the biotrophic phase, but the elicitation of growth promotion was not affected compared with the wild-type situation. Our results suggest that IAA is involved in the establishment of biotrophy in P. indica-barley symbiosis and might represent a compatibility factor in this system. © 2012 New Phytologist Trust. Source

Singh N.R.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Loushambam R.S.,Dr. YSP UHF
Ecology, Environment and Conservation

The present experiment was conducted in 2012-13 at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar. It was laid out in split plot design with two farming systems (viz., Soybean crop under open farming system and Soybean crop under poplar based agroforestry system) as main plots and four varieties of soybean (PS 1042, PS 1225, PS 1347 & PS 1024) as sub-plots with three replication.Soil pH, EC, organic carbon, available soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was significantly higher under poplar based agroforestry system as compared to open farming system. There was mark improvement of 11.65 % (OC), 12.41 % (available P) and 6.20 % available (K) in agroforestry system over open farming system.AU the soil nutrients (N, P and K) were found maximum in the plot of PS 1225. The values of nutrients (N, P and K) were higher in upper soil layer (0-15 cm) as compared to (15-30 cm) lower profile soil sample. Growth parameters like germination count, plant height, number of trifoliate leaves per plant and dry matter accumulation were found higher under open farming system as compared to poplar based agroforestry system. However, the nodule numbers in the root of soybean was found higher in poplar based agroforestry system as compared to open farming system.Among soybean varieties maximum germination count was found in PS 1225. Plant height was found higher in PS 1225 at all the growth stages. However, number of trifoliate leaves per plant; number of root nodules per plant and dry matter accumulation were found higher in PS 1225 at all the growth stages. © EM International. Source

Shamet G.S.,Dr. YSP UHF | Mehta H.,Kulagarh Road | Alam N.M.,Kulagarh Road | Kaushal R.,Kulagarh Road | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree species. The present investigation was conducted in P. gerardiana forests to understand vegetation pattern and regeneration processes on different sites in the region. Statistical analysis was performed to know variability in growing stock and regeneration on sample plots, while correlation coefficients and regression models were developed to find the relationship between regeneration and site factors. The vegetation study showed dominance of P. gerardiana, which is followed by Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana and Quercus ilex in the region. The growing stock of P. gerardiana showed steep increasing and then steadily declining trend from lower to higher diameter class. The distribution of seedling, sapling, pole and trees was not uniform at different sites and less number of plots in each site were observed to have effective conditions for continuous regeneration, but mostly showed extremely limited regeneration. Regeneration success ranging from 8.44 to 15.93 % was recorded in different sites of the region, which suggests that in different sites regeneration success is influenced by collection of cone for extracting seed, grazing/browsing and physico-chemical properties of soil. Regeneration success showed significant correlation and relationship with most of abiotic and biotic factors. The regeneration success is lower than the requirement of sustainable forest, but varies widely among sites in dry temperate forests of Himalaya. More forest surveys are required to understand the conditions necessary for greater success of P. gerardiana in the region. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

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