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Rensing-Ehl A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Janda A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Lorenz M.R.,University of Ulm | Gladstone B.P.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | And 37 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2013

Clinical and genetic heterogeneity renders confirmation or exclusion of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome difficult. To re-evaluate and improve the currently suggested diagnostic approach to patients with suspected FAS mutation, the most frequent cause of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, we prospectively determined 11 biomarkers in 163 patients with splenomegaly or lymphadenopathy and presumed or proven autoimmune cytopenia(s). Among 98 patients sequenced for FAS mutations in CD3+TCRα/β+CD4-CD8-"double negative" T cells, 32 had germline and six had somatic FAS mutations. The best a priori predictor of FAS mutations was the combination of vitamin B12 and soluble FAS ligand (cut-offs 1255 pg/mL and 559 pg/mL, respectively), which had a positive predictive value of 92% and a negative predictive value of 97%. We used these data to develop a web-based probability calculator for FAS mutations using the three most discriminatory biomarkers (vitamin B12, soluble FAS ligand, interleukin-10) of the 11 tested. Since more than 60% of patients with lymphoproliferation and autoimmune cytopenia(s) in our cohort did not harbor FAS mutations, 15% had somatic FAS mutations, and the predictive value of doublenegative T-cell values was rather low (positive and negative predictive values of 61% and 77%, respectively), we argue that the previously suggested diagnostic algorithm based on determination of double-negative T cells and germline FAS sequencing, followed by biomarker analysis, is not efficient. We propose vitamin B12 and soluble FAS ligand assessment as the initial diagnostic step with subsequent decision on FAS sequencing supported by a probability-calculating tool. © 2013 Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source

Ehrhardt H.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Ehrhardt H.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Schrembs D.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Moritz C.,Helmholtz Center Munich | And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

Application of anthracyclines and Vinca alkaloids on the same day represents a hallmark of polychemotherapy protocols for hematopoietic malignancies. Here we show, for the first time, that both drugs might act most efficiently if they are applied on different days. Proof-of-concept studies in 18 cell lines revealed that anthracyclines inhibited cell death by Vinca alkaloids in 83% of cell lines. Importantly, in a preclinical mouse model, doxorubicin reduced the anti-tumor effect of vincristine. Both drugs acted in a sequencedependent manner and the strongest anti-tumor effect was obtained if both drugs were applied on different days. Most notably for clinical relevance, in 34% of 35 fresh primary childhood leukemia cells tested in vitro, doxorubicin reduced the anti-tumor effect of vincristine. As underlying mechanism, doxorubicin activated p53, p53 induced cell-cycle arrest, and cell-cycle arrest disabled inactivation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members by vincristine; therefore, vincristine was unable to activate downstream apoptosis signaling. As molecular proof, antagonism was rescued by knockdown of p53, whereas knockdown of cyclin A inhibited vincristine-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest evaluating anthracyclines and Vinca alkaloids on different days in future trials. Selecting drug combinations based on mechanistic understanding represents a novel conceptional strategy for potent polychemotherapy protocols. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Moratto D.,University of Brescia | Giliani S.,University of Brescia | Bonfim C.,Federal University of Parana | Mazzolari E.,Spedali Civili | And 30 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

In this retrospective collaborative study, we have analyzed long-term outcome and donor cell engraftment in 194 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) who have been treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the period 1980-2009. Overall survival was 84.0% and was even higher (89.1% 5-year survival) for those who received HCT since the year 2000, reflecting recent improvement of outcome after transplantation from mismatched family donors and for patients who received HCT from an unrelated donor at older than 5 years. Patients who went to transplantation in better clinical conditions had a lower rate of post-HCT complications. Retrospective analysis of lineage-specific donor cell engraftment showed that stable full donor chimerism was attained by 72.3% of the patients who survived for at least 1 year after HCT. Mixed chimerism was associated with an increased risk of incomplete reconstitution of lymphocyte count and post-HCT autoimmunity, and myeloid donor cell chimerism < 50% was associated with persistent thrombocytopenia. These observations indicate continuous improvement of outcome after HCT for WAS and may have important implications for the development of novel protocols aiming to obtain full correction of the disease and reduce post-HCT complications. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

Rudnik-Schoneborn S.,RWTH Aachen | Senderek J.,RWTH Aachen | Senderek J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Jen J.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 24 more authors.
Neurology | Year: 2013

Objectives: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia with spinal muscular atrophy, also known as PCH1, is a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by generalized muscle weakness and global developmental delay commonly resulting in early death. Gene defects had been discovered only in single patients until the recent identification of EXOSC3 mutations in several families with relatively mild course of PCH1.We aim to genetically stratify subjects in a large and well-defined cohort to define the clinical spectrum and genotypephenotype correlation. Methods: We documented clinical, neuroimaging, and morphologic data of 37 subjects from 27 families with PCH1. EXOSC3 gene sequencing was performed in 27 unrelated index patients of mixed ethnicity. Results: Biallelic mutations in EXOSC3 were detected in 10 of 27 families (37%). The most common mutation among all ethnic groups was c.395A>C, p.D132A, responsible for 11 (55%) of the 20 mutated alleles and ancestral in origin. The mutation-positive subjects typically presented with normal pregnancy, normal birth measurements, and relative preservation of brainstemand cortical structures. Psychomotor retardation was profound in all patients but lifespan was variable, with 3 subjects surviving beyond the late teens. Abnormal oculomotor function was commonly observed in patients surviving beyond the first year. Major clinical features previously reported in PCH1, including intrauterine abnormalities, postnatal hypoventilation and feeding difficulties, joint contractures, and neonatal death,were rarely observed inmutation-positive infants but were typical among themutation-negative subjects. Conclusion: EXOSC3 mutations account for 30%-40% of patients with PCH1 with variability in survival and clinical severity that is correlated with the genotype. © 2013 American Academy of Neurology. Source

Booth C.,Institute of Child Health | Gilmour K.C.,Institute of Child Health | Veys P.,Institute of Child Health | Gennery A.R.,Northumbria University | And 44 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2011

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1) is a rare immunodeficiency characterized by severe immune dysregulation and caused by mutations in the SH2D1A/SAP gene. Clinical manifestations are varied and include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia, often triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Historical data published before improved treatment regimens shows very poor outcome. We describe a large cohort of 91 genetically defined XLP1 patients collected from centers worldwide and report characteristics and outcome data for 43 patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and 48 untransplanted patients. The advent of better treatment strategies for HLH and malignancy has greatly reduced mortality for these patients, but HLH still remains the most severe feature of XLP1. Survival after allogeneic HSCT is 81.4% with good immune reconstitution in the large majority of patients and little evidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. However, survival falls to 50% in patients with HLH as a feature of disease. Untransplanted patients have an overall survival of 62.5% with the majority on immunoglobulin replacement therapy, but the outcome for those untransplanted after HLH is extremely poor (18.8%). HSCT should be undertaken in all patients with HLH, because outcome without transplant is extremely poor. The outcome of HSCT for other manifestations of XLP1 is very good, and if HSCT is not undertaken immediately, patients must be monitored closely for evidence of disease progression. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology. Source

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