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Sahni A.K.,Armed Forces Medical College | Nagendra A.,Dr Ulhas Patil Medical College | Roy P.,Armed Forces Medical College | Patrikar S.,Armed Forces Medical College
Medical Journal Armed Forces India | Year: 2014

Background: Standard HIV testing is done using serum or plasma. FDA approved ELISA to screen urine for IgG antibodies to HIV-1 in 1996. It is a simple, noninvasive test and is appropriate for developing countries where health care personnel may not be professionally trained or where clean needles for drawing blood may not always be available. Methods: 436 individuals with high-risk behavior and strong clinical suspicion of HIV infection were screened for IgG antibodies to HIV-1 in urine by ELISA. Urine HIV testing was performed by enzyme immunoassay, at the ongoing Voluntary Confidential Counseling and Testing Center (VCCTC) at a large tertiary care microbiology lab. The individuals enrolled for the study had high-risk exposure to the virus and majorities were from a state with a high incidence of HIV infection. In all individuals, both serum and urine were tested for IgG antibodies to HIV-1. Results: Overall, 135 individuals (30.96%) were HIV-positive, of whom 96 (71%) had never previously tested positive; 87% of those who tested positive received their results, and most were referred for medical care. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of HIV-1 urine ELISA test kit were determined. Sensitivity was found to be 89.6%; 95% CI [82.9e94.0], specificity 97.3%; 95% CI [94.6e98.8], positive predictive value 93.8%; 95% CI [87.8e97.1] and negative predictive value 95.4%; 95% CI [92.3e97.4]. Conclusion: Efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the urine-based screening for HIV-1 test kits were excellent as compared to the reference test. © 2013, Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS). All rights reserved.

Kiswani K.,MDS | Patil R.,Dr Ulhas Patil Medical College
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2011

The present study on decalcification includes following aims & objectives: 1) To compare the efficacy of modified 5% EDTA solution (neutralized with 2% ammonium hydroxide) with routinely used 5% HNO 3 & 5% formic acid as decalcifying agents. 2) To quantitatively evaluate the optimum end-point with each of the above decalcifying agents & the total time required for decalcification. 3) To recommend the best decalcifying agent and determine its optimum end-point. Total 90 samples were selected randomly from different patients, divided in slots of 30, with age group 13-20 years, independent of sex. Modified EDTA solution (neutralized with 2% ammonium hydroxide instead of sodium hydroxide) was found to be the most effective decalcifying agents as compared to 5% HNO 3 & 5% HCOOH. The decalcification time was considerably reduced (33-35 days). 5% nitric acid was faster in its action (11-12 days) while 5% formic acid was the intermediate one (16-18 days). The choice of decalcifying agent & method preferably should be largely dictated by the urgency of procedure i.e. whether biopsy report is awaited by the surgeon or purpose of study, time, & equipment available, etc. The method of end-point determination described in the study is a tool for quantitative evaluation of decalcification methods & an objective assessment of the methods and/or tissue-specific factors. Decalcification of teeth is not dependent on the sex of patient, arch trait, & type trait.

Ingle S.S.,Dr Ulhas Patil Medical College
World Journal of Laparoscopic Surgery | Year: 2013

Background: Worldwide about 782,000 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer each year. Colorectal cancer is the third leading diagnosed cancer in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Surgery is the primary treatment modality in colorectal cancer. The laparoscopic approach to colectomy is slowly gaining acceptance for the management of colorectal pathology. The cost-effectiveness and long-term outcomes with laparoscopic colectomy (LAC) for malignancy are less well accepted. This review article was aimed to compare laparoscopic with open anterior resection and ascertain the therapeutic benefit, if any, in the overall management rectal cancer.

Raghuwanshi U.,B J Medical College | Choudhari S.C.,Government Medical College | Patil R.,Dr Ulhas Patil Medical College
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2012

Oral cancer is the most common malignancies in India accounting 30-40% of all cancers.13 Free-radical induced damage is an important factor in oral carcinoma. Antioxidants, particularly vitamin C, have been shown to inhibit both initiation & promotion in carcinogenesis & counteract cell immortalization & transformation. Lipid peroxidation byproducts formed under physiological & pathological conditions are also scavenged by such non-enzymatic antioxidants.9 Though several studies have been made which attempt to evaluate the levels of vitamin C, only a few are available w r t different grades of oral cancer. This aspect is studied in present work. Tobacco is a known risk factor in progression of this disease. The oral cancer model has therefore become an ideal model for studies on antioxidant levels because tobacco consumption exposes the oral epithelium to toxic oxygen & nitrogen free radicals that can affect host antioxidant defense mechanisms with non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C. Thirty healthy subjects & histopathologically-diagnosed patients (n = 30) of oral squamous cell carcinoma [grade I & grade II] were included. Serum vitamin C levels were estimated by method of Ayekyaw (1978).1 Vitamin C levels showed a highly significant decrease in oral cancer patients w r t to control group which concluded an inverse relationship with the severity of disease (p<0.001). Similar results were obtained when grade I & II patients were compared with control (p<0.001). Though all patients were tobacco chewers & showed a decreasing trend in vitamin level, gutkha chewers showed much lower levels as compared to pan chewers (p < 0.001 Vs control). Therapeutic measures to increase antioxidants, particularly vitamin C, are warranted for effective control. Measurement of vitamin C in circulation of oral cancer patients may be a useful index in assessing the tumor grades of patients. In conclusion, a decrease in vitamin C & long-term inflammation caused by smokeless tobacco, particularly gutkha, may be regarded as risk factors for oral carcinogenesis.

Santosh Kotgire A.,Dr Ulhas Patil Medical College | Nilima T.,Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012

Background and Objective: The identification of microorganisms which cause ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is important for formulating appropriate therapies. In this study, we have reported the incidence of VAP and the prevalence of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms from patients who were diagnosed with VAP in our medical-surgical intensive care unit during the period from August 07 to May 08. Material and Methods: Patients who were on mechanical ventilation for more than 48hrs and in whom ventilator associated pneumonia was suspected, when a new and persistent pulmonary infiltrate appeared on the chest radiograph and who had at-least two of the following criteriae, were included in the study: 1. Fever ≥38 °C or hypothermia ≤36 °C 2. WBC count ≥ 10000mm3 or ≤ 4000 mm3 and 3. Purulent tracheal secretion. Results: The incidence of VAP in our hospital setting was found to be 45% and the most frequently isolated pathogens were Pseudomonas spp, Staphylococcus aureus and members of the family, Enterobacteriacae. Of the 73 isolates which were studied, 36 were found to be MDR Conclusion: In conclusion, the incidence of VAP and the prevalence of multidrug resistant microorganisms were quite high in our ICU setup. A local surveillance program at each centre is essential, as the knowledge of local resistant patterns is vital for selecting the appropriate agents for treating infections.

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