Thiruvananthapuram, India
Thiruvananthapuram, India

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Jose J.,Kerala University | Prahladan A.,Dr Smcsi Medical College | Nair M.S.,Kerala University
Biomedical Engineering Letters | Year: 2013

Purpose: Ultrasound (US) imaging is widely used for diagnosis these days due to its advantages such as no-radiation, portability and low cost. But the two inherent drawbacks of US imaging are low contrast and speckle noise. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to simultaneously enhance the contrast and suppress the speckle noise thereby improving the visual quality of the US image. Methods: Normalization and fuzzification are used as the preprocessing steps for the contrast enhancement and the mapping of intensity values to brightness degree of US images. A fuzzy sub-pixel fractional partial difference with Jensen Shannon divergence operator is proposed here for determining whether a pixel is noise or edge, and thereby reducing the speckle noise. The proposed method is a generalization of first, second and fourth order difference with weight information collected from the overall view of the image. Results: Proposed method has been tested both on synthetic and real ultrasound images. The results show that the proposed method improves preservation of relevant information without compromising the quality of visual appearance. FOM and Contrast measures prove the superiority of the proposed method over conventional as well as advanced methods. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DJ method has the advantage of maximizing speckle reduction and contrast enhancement, with great accuracy for slightly varying edges and the fine details are well preserved. The method can improve the quality of US images, and will be useful for CAD systems for cancer detection and classification based on US images. © 2013 Korean Society of Medical and Biological Engineering and Springer.


Sajitha G.R.,Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical science | Jose R.,Dr Smcsi Medical College | Andrews A.,University Center | Ajantha K.G.,University Center | Augustine P.,The Surgical Center
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Daily feeding of drinking water containing lead acetate (160 mg/l) or 10% alcohol by volume or a combination of both to rats for a month produced certain deleterious effects through oxidative stress. Both heavy metal lead and alcohol are capable of doing such damages. The deleterious alterations observed were in the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; Hb, Pb, proteins, lipids, lipid per oxidation, Vitamins C and E levels and enzyme activities of AST, ALT, and catalase. Simultaneous feeding of either of the two antioxidants garlic oil (GO) and vitamin E at equal doses of 100 mg/kg/day, to the rats counteracted the deleterious effects of the above two chemicals significantly. The maximum damage was brought about by feeding of drinking water containing both lead acetate and alcohol. The protective effects of GO and Vitamin E were not significantly different. The mechanism of actions of the Vitamin E and GO is probably due to their efficiency as detoxifying agents and antioxidants, to scavenging free radicals as well as an independent action of GO on the removal of lead salt as lead sulfide. © 2010 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India.


Remesh A.,Dr Smcsi Medical College
Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences | Year: 2012

Pharmacovigilance mainly involve monitoring and reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions associated with the use of medicinal products. Under-reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions is a serious issue hampering the dynamics of Pharmacovigilance programme. Pharmacovigilance is a shared responsibility of all the stake holders. This study was mainly aimed to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Perceptions of Health care Professionals towards Pharmacovigilance and estimate factors contributing to under reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions. This was a cross sectional observational questionnaire based study done in a tertiary care hospital in South India. Healthcare professionals who responded (71.4%) includes prescribers, nurses and pharmacists. There was an increase in the awareness and attitude of Health care professionals towards Pharmacovigilance. But inadequate training in methodology of reporting ADR was the main problem. There is a need to provide adequate basic training to all health care professionals by educational interventions through nearest Pharmacovigilance units. It should be of good quality as well as cost affordable.


Remesh A.,Dr SMCSI Medical College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: There are various strategies for overcoming the major pitfalls of cancer chemotherapy, such as toxicity and drug resistance. The scientific computing of drug scheduling by optimisation before drug administration is one among them. In a majority of these strategies, the pharmacodynamic variations are given more importance than the pharmacokinetic variations. This study was meant to analyse the importance of the pharmacokinetic parameters (φ) of the individual patients in cancer chemotherapy scheduling, along with the pharmacodynamic factors. Methods: A mathematical model is developed and it is implemented in the open source OCTAVE GNU LINUX. Optimisation is done by using an optimization tool in OCTAVE. The present study was aimed at evaluating the daily drug dosaging and cyclic chemotherapy which are commonly practised in the chemotherapy scheduling. Four cases were analyzed with and without considering the pharmacokinetic parameters. The optimal therapy was meant to reduce the number of cancer cells to a minimum at the end of the therapy and to minimise the emergence of resistant cancer cells. Since the dose was within tolerable limits, the toxic effects could also be minimised. Results: Even with the consideration of a 1 per cent effect (φ), the maximum possible dose and the performance index were increased in the daily scheduling. But in the cyclic therapy, even though the maximum tolerated dose or the performance index was not altered, the cumulative toxicity was greatly reduced. Conclusion: Daily scheduling and cyclic chemotherapy can be applied alternatively more effectively, by considering the interindividual variations in the pharmacokinetic effect (φ).


Thomas P.,Dr Smcsi Medical College | Bhatia T.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Gauba D.,BSES Yamuna Power Ltd. | Wood J.,University of Pittsburgh | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Psychiatric Research | Year: 2013

Herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) causes cold sores, keratitis and rarely, fatal encephalitis. The infection is lifelong, with sensory ganglia serving as reservoirs of latent infection. Recently, exposure to HSV-1 has also been repeatedly associated with reduced cognitive function among healthy individuals without prior encephalitis. Though HSV-1 does not elevate risk for schizophrenia (SZ) per se, exposure is likewise associated with impaired cognitive functions among SZ patients. The range of cognitive changes observed in HSV-1 exposed persons has not been investigated systematically, nor is it known whether interaction between HSV-1 exposure and SZ related factors contributes to the impairment among SZ patients. Persons with or without schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder (N=298 total, DSM IV criteria) were assessed for HSV-1 exposure using serum HSV-1 antibody titers. The Penn Computerized Neurocognitive battery was used to assess eight cognitive domains with respect to accuracy and speed. There were no significant case-control differences in HSV-1 exposure. The SZ/schizophreniform disorder cases were significantly impaired in all cognitive domains compared with the controls. HSV-1 exposure was also associated with reduced cognitive function in the entire sample, but the magnitude of the effects and their patterns differed from the SZ related changes. Further, statistically significant interactions between HSV-1 exposure and SZ case status were not detected. HSV-1 exposure does not elevate risk for SZ, but it is associated with reduced function in specific cognitive domains regardless of SZ diagnostic status. An 'epidiagnostic' model for the association is proposed to explain the results. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Philip M.,Dr Smcsi Medical College | Samson J.F.,Dr Smcsi Medical College | Simi P.S.,Dr Smcsi Medical College
International Journal of Trichology | Year: 2012

A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy.


Prasad S.C.,Dr SMCSI Medical College | Korah S.,Christian Medical College
Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2015

We report a rare case of ophthalmia nodosa, presenting as a painless swelling in the lower palpebral conjunctiva for 2 years with no signs of inflammation. Excision biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. © 2015 Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.


PubMed | Christian Medical College and Dr Smcsi Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The International journal of social psychiatry | Year: 2016

Antenatal depression is a highly prevalent disorder with serious implications on maternal and child outcomes. There are few studies examining this in low-middle-income community settings.To determine the prevalence of antenatal depression in women from a coastal rural background in Kerala and Tamil Nadu and to determine its associated factors.In this cross-sectional community-based study, in 202 antenatal women, standard interview and diagnostic criteria (Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R)) were employed for identifying depression and examining a wide range of putative clinical and sociocultural risk factors including domestic violence.There was a 16.3% prevalence of depression among the 202 women sampled. The possible risk factors after stepwise backward regression were pressure to have a male child, 11.48 (2.36-55.78); financial difficulties, 8.23 (2.49-27.22); non-arranged marriage, 6.05 (1.72-21.23); history of miscarriage-still birth, 5.77 (1.55-21.43) and marital conflict, 9.55 (2.34-38.98).There is a need to develop strategies for recognition and appropriate intervention for antenatal depression, in the context of locally relevant risk factors, so as to improve both maternal and child outcomes.


PubMed | Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences and Dr Smcsi Medical College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Indian journal of psychological medicine | Year: 2016

To examine the prevalence and pattern of comorbidity in alcohol dependence and its relationship with physical and laboratory findings.Eighty males with alcohol dependence were examined using the Hindi version of Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, the International Classification of Disease-10Eighty-seven percent had a comorbid Axis I or an Axis II psychiatric disorder, over 78% had nicotine dependence, and 56% had comorbid Axis II disorder, antisocial personality being the most common. Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels were significantly associated with comorbidity.High comorbidity of Axis I psychiatric disorders was found among persons with alcohol dependence. Axis II disorders were also present.


PubMed | Dr Smcsi Medical College
Type: | Journal: Asian journal of psychiatry | Year: 2016

Agitation among psychiatry inpatients can be a distressing and burdensome entity for patients, caregivers and staff. It has been poorly studied in low-middle income countries such as India both within acute care as well as long stay settings. 272 psychiatry admissions had 19.9% prevalence of agitation with the most common form being non goal directed physical agitation (13.6%). Episodes of agitation were most likely to occur on the 3rd or 2nd day of admission. Substance abuse [O.R.=2.51(1.05-5.99)] and the presence of persecutory delusions [O.R.=2.62(1.34-5.15)] were independently associated with agitation. It is difficult to predict violence in acutely ill individuals and there is evidence that the emergence of more serious aggression may be preceded by milder forms of agitation. Therefore, there is a need to identify various forms of agitation and its correlates. An understanding of these factors may assist in planning appropriate interventions that could improve patient outcomes and reduce the burden on caregivers.

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