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Aekka A.,Michigan State University | Abraham R.,Michigan State University | Hollis M.,Michigan State University | Boudiab E.,Michigan State University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Surgical Research | Year: 2015

Background A major factor contributing to global trauma mortality and morbidity is the lack of effective prehospital trauma services in developing settings. We developed a 2-d training course for nondoctor first responders featuring high-fidelity simulation and video-assisted debriefing, self-directed learning videos, and native language instruction. Materials and methods A pilot session was conducted in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Eighteen local instructors were recruited to train 48 layperson first responders in 10 essential subjects. Didactic sessions of 15-20 min consisting of self-directed learning videos were followed by 30-40 min skill sessions featuring high-fidelity simulation, and concluded with 15-20 min video-debriefing periods. Changes in competence were evaluated using pretraining and posttraining surveys. Results Results demonstrated that statistically significant competence increases in all areas of trauma management assessed: airway (t[46] = 7.30, P < 0.000), hemorrhage (t[46] = 9.96, P < 0.000), fractures (t[46] = 9.22, P < 0.000), cervical spine injury (t[46] = 12.12, P = 0.000), chest injury (t[46] = 7.84, P < 0.000), IV line placement (t[46] = 4.36, P < 0.000), extrication (t[46] = 2.81, P < 0.005), scene assessment (t[46] = 7.06, P < 0.000), triage (t[46] = 5.92, P < 0.000), and communication (t[46] = 5.56, P < 0.000). Highest increases in competence were observed in cervical spine injury and hemorrhage management, with lowest increases in IV line placement and extrication. Conclusions Results suggest this approach may be effective in imparting prehospital trauma management concepts to layperson first responders. This study highlights an innovative educational avenue through which trauma management capacity can be enhanced in developing settings. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Pareek A.K.,Clinical Research Laboratories | Messerli F.H.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Messerli F.H.,University of Bern | Chandurkar N.B.,Clinical Research Laboratories | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2016

Background Thiazide and thiazide-like diuretic agents are being increasingly used at lower doses. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in the 12.5-mg dose remains the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive agent in the United States. Objectives This study compared chlorthalidone, 6.25 mg daily, with HCTZ, 12.5 mg daily, by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring and evaluated efficacy. Because HCTZ has been perceived as a short-acting drug, a third comparison with an extended-release formulation (HCTZ-controlled release [CR]) was added. Methods This 12-week comparative, double-blind, outpatient study randomized 54 patients with stage 1 hypertension to receive either chlorthalidone, 6.25 mg, (n = 16); HCTZ 12.5 mg (n = 18); or HCTZ-CR 12.5 mg (n = 20). ABP monitoring was performed at baseline and after 4 and 12 weeks of therapy. Results All 3 treatments significantly (p < 0.01) lowered office BP at weeks 4 and 12 from baseline. At weeks 4 and 12, significant reductions in systolic and diastolic 24-h ambulatory and nighttime BP (p < 0.01) were observed with chlorthalidone but not with HCTZ. At weeks 4 (p = 0.015) and 12 (p = 0.020), nighttime systolic ABP was significantly lower in the chlorthalidone group than in the the HCTZ group. With HCTZ therapy, sustained hypertension was converted into masked hypertension. In contrast to the HCTZ group, the HCTZ-CR group also showed a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in 24-h ABP. All 3 treatments were generally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions Treatment with low-dose chlorthalidone, 6.25 mg daily, significantly reduced mean 24-h ABP as well as daytime and nighttime BP. Due to its short duration of action, no significant 24-h ABP reduction was seen with HCTZ, 12.5 mg daily, which merely converted sustained hypertension into masked hypertension. Thus, low-dose chlorthalidone, 6.25 mg, could be used as monotherapy for treatment of essential hypertension, whereas low-dose HCTZ monotherapy is not an appropriate antihypertensive drug. (Comparative Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide CR with Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone in Patients With Stage I Essential Hypertension; CTRI/2013/07/003793) © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source


Daga D.,Dr Sampurnanand Medical College | Dana R.,Dr Sampurnanand Medical College | Kothari N.,SRL Diagnostic
Central European Journal of Urology | Year: 2014

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a subtype of RCC, accounts for 4-6% of all RCC and has better prognosis then conventional RCC. Sarcomatoid dedifferentiation is thought to represent the high-grade end of all subtypes. This makes chromophobe RCC with sarcomatoid changes a rare entity associated with poor prognosis in most studies. We present a case of a 40-year old female with this rare histology, with the tumour localised to the renal capsule, managed with nephrectomy and with close follow-up thereafter. The patient is free of disease after one year of treatment. Source


Goswami A.,Dr Sampurnanand Medical College | Dadhich S.,Dr Sampurnanand Medical College | Bhargava N.,Dr Sampurnanand Medical College
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Background and Objective: Narrow band imaging endoscopy with magnification (NBI-ME) has already been established in Barrett’s esophagus, stomach, and colonic mucosa, but limited work has been done in the mucosal evaluation of duodenum. A study was done to determine the correlation between NBI and histology in grading villous architecture in varied etiology.Method: A prospective observational study comprising 105 subjects with suspected malabsorption. The presence of a diagnosed celiac disease, severe life threatening comorbidity, or pregnancy was considered as exclusion criteria. Standard endoscopy (SE), NBI-ME, multiple duodenal biopsies with histopathological examination were done in all.Results: Fifty-one patients had celiac disease while 54 patients comprised mainly functional dyspepsia, iron deficiency anemia, tropical malabsorption syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome. Four NBI-ME image subtypes of villous morphology have been proposed (NBI type I/II/III/IV). NBI-ME had 95 % sensitivity, 90.2 % specificity, 91.2 % positive predictive value, and 94.2 % negative predictive value for diagnosing altered villous morphology. Intraobserver kappa agreement coefficient (κ) for NBI-ME was 0.83 while interobserver agreement was 0.89 (95 % CI 0.8–0.97).Conclusion: NBI-ME has good performance characteristics and very good kappa intra/interobserver agreement coefficient for varied subtypes of villous morphology. NBI-ME is most useful for obtaining a targeted biopsy which can be missed by conventional white light endoscopy. © 2014, Indian Society of Gastroenterology. Source


Goswami A.,Dr Sampurnanand Medical College | Dadhich S.,Dr Sampurnanand Medical College | Bhargava N.,Dr Sampurnanand Medical College
Annals of Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Background Colonic involvement in amebic liver abscess (ALA) occurs in more than half of the patients. However no studies have found any association between the site of the colonic lesions and location of abscesses in the liver. Thus, the present study was designed to find the correlation between colonic involvement in solitary and multiple ALAs. Methods This is a case control study of 80 patients allocated in two groups, the first with solitary (controls) and the second with multiple ALAs (cases). Colonoscopy was performed in all patients enrolled in the study. Results Solitary ALA was seen in 70% of patients whereas multiple ALAs in 30%. Colonic involvement in the form of erythema, inflammation and ulceration was seen in 77.5% of cases of ALA. 71.4% cases of solitary ALA had colonic lesions compared to 91.6% cases of multiple ALAs (P=0.02). Most of the patients with multiple ALAs had involvement of the transverse and right colon (75%). Involvement of right colon was present in all patients with colonic involvement. A significant involvement of the right and transverse colon was seen in cases of multiple compared to solitary ALA (P<0.0001). Conclusion Colonic involvement is present in more than two thirds of patients with ALA. When colonic involvement is present, right colon lesion is universally present. Colonic involvement may extend beyond hepatic flexure in patients with multiple amebic ALAs, either involving right hepatic lobe or both lobes. © 2014 Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology. Source

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