Faizābād, India
Faizābād, India

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Gupta V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Gupta V.K.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Atar N.,Dumlupinar University | Yola M.L.,Sinop University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2013

This study represents a novel template demonstration of a glucose biosensor based on mercaptophenyl boronic acid (MBA) terminated Ag@AuNPs/graphene oxide (Ag@AuNPs-GO) nanomaterials. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The TEM image shows that Ag@AuNPs in the nanocomposite is in the range of diameters of 10-20. nm. The nanocomposite was used for the determination of glucose through the complexation between boronic acid and diol groups of glucose. Thus, a novel glucose biosensor was further fabricated by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) into MBA terminated Ag@AuNPs-GO nanocomposite film (MBA-Ag@AuNPs-GO). The linearity range of glucose was obtained as 2-6. mM with detection limit of 0.33. mM. The developed biosensor was also applied successfully for the determination of glucose in blood samples. The concentration value of glucose in blood samples was calculated to be 1.97 ± 0.002. mM from measurements repeated for six times. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Gupta V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Gupta V.K.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Sadeghi R.,Islamic Azad University | Karimi F.,Islamic Azad University
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2013

Synthesis and application of ZnO nanoparticles (Zn/NPs) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoro phosphate as high sensitive sensors for voltammetric determination of droxidopa (DXP) using carbon paste electrode has been reported for the first time. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by different methods such as TEM, SEM and XRD. The electrochemical oxidation of DXP on the new ZnO/NPs ionic liquid carbon paste electrode (ZnO/NPs/IL/CPE) has been carefully studied. The experimental results suggested that the modified electrode promoted electron transfer reaction for the oxidation of DXP. Under the optimized conditions of pH 7.0, the plot of peak current vs. DXP concentration consisted of two linear segments with slopes of 0.4733 and 0.0177 μA μmol-1 L in the concentration ranges 0.4-5.0 μmol L-1 and 5.0-310.0 μmol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was 0.15 μmol L-1. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of DXP in tablet, serum and urine samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Pathak A.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Shanker R.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research | Garg S.K.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Manickam N.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

We have developed an oligonucleotide microarray for the detection of biodegradative genes and bacterial diversity and tested it in five contaminated ecosystems. The array has 60-mer oligonucleotide probes comprising 14,327 unique probes derived from 1,057 biodegradative genes and 880 probes representing 110 phylogenetic genes from diverse bacterial communities, and we named it as BiodegPhyloChip. The biodegradative genes are involved in the transformation of 133 chemical pollutants. Validation of the microarray for its sensitivity specificity and quantitation were performed using DNA isolated from well-characterized mixed bacterial cultures also having non-target strains, pure degrader strains, and environmental DNA. Application of the developed array using DNA extracted from five different contaminated sites led to the detection of 186 genes, including 26 genes unique to the individual sites. Hybridization of 16S rRNA probes revealed the presence of bacteria similar to well-characterized genera involved in biodegradation of various pollutants. Genes involved in complete degradation pathways for hexachlorocyclohexane (lin), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (tcb), naphthalene (nah), phenol (mph), biphenyl (bph), benzene (ben), toluene (tbm), xylene (xyl), phthalate (pht), Salicylate (sal), and resistance to mercury (mer) were detected with highest intensity. The most abundant genes belonged to the enzyme hydroxylases, monooxygenases, and dehydrogenases which were present in all the five samples. Thus, the array developed and validated here shall be useful in assessing not only the biodegradative potential but also the composition of environmentally useful bacteria, simultaneously, from hazardous ecosystems. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Singh J.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Upadhyay S.K.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Pathak R.K.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Gupta V.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2011

Heavy metals, a highly polluting group of constituents known to exert adverse effects, tend to accumulate in living organisms. The objective of this study was to determine the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in soil and in paddy crop irrigated with lake water compared to soil and paddy crop irrigated with bore-well water. The quantities of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Mn, and Hg) were determined in different parts of rice plants (Oryza sativa). Results revealed that the mean levels of soil Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, As, Mn, and Hg in experimental soil and in different parts of rice plant (root, straw, and grain) were higher than the control except for Cu. The content of eight toxic metals was significantly higher in root than in aerial parts of the rice (straw and grains). Rice roots were enriched in Cd, As, Hg, and Pb from the soil, while Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn were hardly taken by the roots. Bioaccumulation factor for Hg was significantly higher than other heavy metals. Metal transfer factors from soil to rice plants were significant for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, Mn, and Hg. The concentrations of metals in lake water were found to be within the permissible limit of Indian standard prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board (2000), except for Hg and As, which were higher than the limit of Indian standard. However, the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and rice grains were still below the maximal levels, as stipulated by Indian Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA, 1954) and World Health Organization (WHO, 1993) guidelines. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Singh J.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Gautam S.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Pant A.B.,Indian Institute of Toxicology Research
Cellular and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The survival of Antarctic flora under ozone depletion depends on their ability to acclimate against increasing UV-B radiation by employing photo protective mechanisms either by avoiding or repairing UV-B damage. A fifteen days experiment was designed to study moss (Bryum argenteum) and lichen (Umbilicaria aprina) under natural UV-B exposure and under UV filter frames at the Maitri region of Schirmacher oasis, East Antarctica. Changes in UV absorbing compounds, phenolics, carotenoids and chlorophyll content were studied for continuous fifteen days and significant changes were observed in the UV exposed plants of B. argenteum and U. aprina. The change in the UV absorbing compounds was more significant in B. argenteum (P<0.0001) than U. aprina (P<0.0002). The change in phenolic contents and total carotenoid content was significant (P<0.0001) in both B. argenteum and lichen U. aprina indicating that the increase in UV absorbing compounds, phenolic contents and total carotenoid content act as a protective mechanism against the deleterious effect of UV-B radiations. © 2012.


Kumar A.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Bala L.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Kalita J.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Misra U.K.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an invariably fatal neurological disorder shows complicated pathogenesis that poses challenges with respect to diagnosis as well as monitoring of disease progression. Methods: We investigated metabolite profiles in the serum of 30 patients with ALS, 10 patients of Hirayama disease, which served as a neurological disease control and 25 healthy controls by using (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the ALS patients had higher quantities of glutamate (P<0.001), beta-hydroxybutyrate (P<0.001), acetate (P<0.01), acetone (P<0.05), and formate (P<0.001), and lower concentrations of glutamine (P<0.02), histidine (P<0.001) and N-acetyl derivatives. On the other hand, Hirayama disease patients had significantly higher median concentrations of pyruvate (P<0.05), glutamate (P<0.001), formate (P<0.05) and lower median concentrations of N-acetyl derivatives. Furthermore, we also found that serum glutamate showed a positive correlation (P<0.001, r=0.6487) whereas, histidine showed a negative correlation (P<0.001, r=-0.5641) with the duration of the disease in ALS. Conclusions: Such (1) H NMR study of serum may reveal abnormal metabolite patterns, which could have the potential to serve as surrogate markers for monitoring ALS disease progression. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Mishra S.S.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Mishra P.P.,Dr Rml Avadh University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2011

There always exists a significant time lag between production and consumption of the inventory items and in this lag producers face the risk of decision making not only about levels of production and consumption but also deterioration of the items that take place during the lag. In order to provide a scientific foundation to decision making about optimal quantity and price of the items, a (Q,R) model is here studied for the fuzzified deterioration occurring in time lag between production and consumption of items that deals with the traditional cobweb phenomenon and an attractive policy of permissible delay in the payment. A computational algorithm has been developed to solve the problem in order to attain the optimal quantity and its price for the model. The paper also presents the sensitivity analysis and comparative study of this model under crisp and fuzzy environments with the help of illustrative examples to simply gain the better perspectives of the model from the application point of view. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Singh J.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Dubey A.K.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Singh R.P.,Dr Rml Avadh University
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The terrestrial ecosystem of Antarctica are among the most extreme on earth, challenging the communities and making their existence difficult by rapidly increasing annual summer influx of solar ultraviolet radiations (UV-R), extremely cold conditions and lesser availability of nutrients. Spring time ozone depletion is due to release of chlorofluorocarbons in the earth atmosphere and is a serious cause of concern among environmentalists. Antarctic continent is mostly dominated by cryptogamic plants with limited distribution in different parts of the icy continent however; their distribution is mostly confined to Sub-Antarctic region. By the virtue of light requirement, cryptogams are exposed to extreme seasonal fluctuation in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and ultraviolet (UV) radiation which are closely associated with photosynthetic pigments in photoautotrophic organisms. Antarctic cryptogams cope up the stress imposed by UV radiation by the development of efficient systems for repairing damage by synthesis of screening compounds such as UV-B absorbing pigments and anthocyanin compounds. A major part of the UV absorbing compounds are appeared to be constitutive in lichens which are usnic acid, perlatolic acid and fumarphotocetraric acid which is particularly induced by UV-B. Secondary metabolites such as phenolics, atranorin, parietin and melanin also enhance the plant defense, by different molecular targets in specific solar irradiance and potential for increased antioxidative protection to UV induced vulnerability. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Singh P.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Vishwakarma S.P.,Dr Rml Avadh University | Singh R.L.,Dr Rml Avadh University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The plant Trigonella foenum-gracecum (TFG) is used as antidiabetic and diuretic. In order to ascertain antioxidant potential of leaf (early and mature) and seed of TFG, total phenolics, free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, reducing power, lipid peroxidation, ferric thiocyanate assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and DNA damage protective activities were determined. The study was further carried out to assay the antimicrobial activity and HPLC analysis of plant parts. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts of leaf (early and mature) exhibited a high content of phenolics (54.79 and 41.28 g kg-1 GAE) when it was compared with seed extract (23.85 g kg-1 GAE). Results showed that mature TFG leaf extract had the lowest IC50 for the free radical scavenging assay (IC50 = 2.23 mg mL-1), superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.71 mg mL-1), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 17.30 mg mL-1) and highest reducing power (10.14 ascorbic acid equivalents mL-1). However, the ethanol seed extract showed the maximum inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the ferric thiocyanate assay. Mature leaf also showed the maximum DNA damage protection activity and higher concentration of phytochemicals. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the mature TFG leaf had a higher antioxidant activity, which may be due to the presence of total phenolics. It may be used in herbal drugs or as a nutritional supplement. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Srivastava A.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh N.,Banaras Hindu University | Mishra M.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumar V.,Banaras Hindu University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Leishmania is known to elicit Th2 response that causes leishmaniasis progression; on the other hand, Th1 cytokines restricts amastigote growth and disease progression. In this study, we report the potential of two leishmanial antigens (65 and 98 kDa, in combination) which enhance strong macrophage effector functions, viz., production of respiratory burst enzymes, nitric oxide, and Th1 cytokines. The identification of antigens were done by resolving the crude soluble antigens on SDS-PAGE and eluted by reverse staining method. Further, RAW264.7 macrophages were challenged with eluted antigens, and the innate immune response was observed by detecting respiratory burst enzymes, nitric oxide (NOx), TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, toll-like receptors (TLRs) gene expression, and TLR-signaling proteins. These antigens increased the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, superoxide dismutase, NOx, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, TLR2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These antigens also induced human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation and Th1 cytokine production. This study concludes that these antigens induce innate immune response as well as have prophylactic efficacy. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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