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Rajalakshmi R.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Prathiba V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Mohan V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialties Center
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the leading causes of preventable blindness, is associated with many systemic factors that contribute to the development and progression of this microvascular complication of diabetes. While the duration of diabetes is the major risk factor for the development of DR, the main modifiable systemic risk factors for development and progression of DR are hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This review article looks at the evidence that control of these systemic factors has significant benefits in delaying the onset and progression of DR. © 2016 Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Source

Kooner J.S.,Imperial College London | Saleheen D.,Center for Non Communicable Diseases Pakistan | Saleheen D.,University of Cambridge | Sim X.,National University of Singapore | And 80 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2011

We carried out a genome-wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of South Asian ancestry. Our discovery set included 5,561 individuals with T2D (cases) and 14,458 controls drawn from studies in London, Pakistan and Singapore. We identified 20 independent SNPs associated with T2D at P < 10 -4 for testing in a replication sample of 13,170 cases and 25,398 controls, also all of South Asian ancestry. In the combined analysis, we identified common genetic variants at six loci (GRB14, ST6GAL1, VPS26A, HMG20A, AP3S2 and HNF4A) newly associated with T2D (P = 4.1 × 10 -8 to P = 1.9 × 10 -11). SNPs at GRB14 were also associated with insulin sensitivity (P = 5.0 × 10 -4), and SNPs at ST6GAL1 and HNF4A were also associated with pancreatic beta-cell function (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). Our findings provide additional insight into mechanisms underlying T2D and show the potential for new discovery from genetic association studies in South Asians, a population with increased susceptibility to T2D. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Venkataraman K.,National University of Singapore | Kannan A.T.,University of Delhi | Kalra O.P.,University of Delhi | Gambhir J.K.,University of Delhi | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Community Health | Year: 2012

A cross-sectional survey of 507 in- and outpatients, with diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was undertaken to study the relationships between personal, disease and treatment-related factors and diabetes control in a tertiary care hospital. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, self-efficacy (odds ratio (OR) = 2.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92-4.54); P < 0.001) was the single most important determinant of current diabetes control (HbA1c ≤t 7%), along with absence of hyperglycemic symptoms in the past year (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.15-2.93, P < 0.01), current treatment with oral medication (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.17-2.66; P < 0.007), and adherence to dietary restrictions (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.28-5.88; P < 0.009). Self-efficacy was itself influenced by educational status, employment, availability of family support, and positive mental attitudes. Our findings suggest that health care delivery inputs, patients' personal characteristics including education and attitude, and family support for care are complexly processed to determine patients' ability to manage their disease, which ultimately influences disease outcomes. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

Sharma R.,Medicity | Gulati S.,Diabetes Foundation India | Joshi S.R.,Lilavati and Bhatia Hospital | Sharma V.,Ministry of Science and Technology | And 28 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

India is undergoing rapid nutritional transition, resulting in excess consumption of calories, saturated fats, trans fatty acids, simple sugars, salt and low intake of fiber. Such dietary transition and a sedentary lifestyle have led to an increase in obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases (type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM], cardiovascular disease [CVD], etc.) predominantly in urban, but also in rural areas. In comparison with the previous guidelines, these consensus dietary guidelines include reduction in the intake of carbohydrates, preferential intake of complex carbohydrates and low glycemic index foods, higher intake of fiber, lower intake of saturated fats, optimal ratio of essential fatty acids, reduction in trans fatty acids, slightly higher protein intake, lower intake of salt, and restricted intake of sugar. While these guidelines are applicable to Asian Indians in any geographical setting, they are particularly applicable to those residing in urban and in semi-urban areas. Proper application of these guidelines will help curb the rising "epidemics" of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, T2DM, and CVD in Asian Indians. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Aravindhan V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Mohan V.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | Mohan V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialties Center | Surendar J.,Madras Diabetes Research Foundation | And 8 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2010

Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse correlation between the incidence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and the incidence of allergies and autoimmunity. However, the interrelationship between LF and type-2 diabetes is not known and hence, a cross sectional study to assess the baseline prevalence and the correlates of sero-positivity of LF among diabetic subjects was carried out (n = 1416) as part of the CURES study. There was a significant decrease in the prevalence of LF among diabetic subjects (both newly diagnosed [5.7%] and those under treatment [4.3%]) compared to pre-diabetic subjects [9.1%] (p = 0.0095) and non-diabetic subjects [10.4%] (p = 0.0463). A significant decrease in filarial antigen load (p = 0.04) was also seen among diabetic subjects. Serum cytokine levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines-IL-6 and GM-CSF- were significantly lower in diabetic subjects who were LF positive, compared to those who were LF negative. There were, however, no significant differences in the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines-IL-10, IL-13 and TGF-β-between the two groups. Although a direct causal link has yet to be shown, there appears to be a striking inverse relationship between the prevalence of LF and diabetes, which is reflected by a diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine response in Asian Indians with diabetes and concomitant LF. Source

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