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Joshi S.R.,Sir J J Group Of Hospitals | Mohan V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Joshi S.S.,Mumbai Diet and Health Center | Mechanick J.I.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Marchetti A.,Rutgers University
Current Diabetes Reports | Year: 2012

India and other countries in Asia are experiencing rapidly escalating epidemics of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. The dramatic rise in the prevalence of these illnesses has been attributed to rapid changes in demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional factors. The rapid transition in dietary patterns in India - coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and specific socioeconomic pressures - has led to an increase in obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. Studies have shown that nutritional interventions significantly enhance metabolic control and weight loss. Current clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are not portable to diverse cultures, constraining the applicability of this type of practical educational instrument. Therefore, a transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed and then customized per regional variations in India. The resultant Indiaspecific tDNA reflects differences in epidemiologic, physiologic, and nutritional aspects of disease, anthropometric cutoff points, and lifestyle interventions unique to this region of the world. Specific features of this transculturalization process for India include characteristics of a transitional economy with a persistently high poverty rate in a majority of people; higher percentage of body fat and lower muscle mass for a given body mass index; higher rate of sedentary lifestyle; elements of the thrifty phenotype; impact of festivals and holidays on adherence with clinic appointments; and the role of a systems or holistic approach to the problem that must involve politics, policy, and government. This Asian Indian tDNA promises to help guide physicians in the management of prediabetes and T2D in India in a more structured, systematic, and effective way compared with previous methods and currently available CPGs. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Patel V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Chatterji S.,Health Statistics and Informatics | Chisholm D.,WHO | Ebrahim S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011

Chronic diseases (eg, cardiovascular diseases, mental health disorders, diabetes, and cancer) and injuries are the leading causes of death and disability in India, and we project pronounced increases in their contribution to the burden of disease during the next 25 years. Most chronic diseases are equally prevalent in poor and rural populations and often occur together. Although a wide range of cost-effective primary and secondary prevention strategies are available, their coverage is generally low, especially in poor and rural populations. Much of the care for chronic diseases and injuries is provided in the private sector and can be very expensive. Sufficient evidence exists to warrant immediate action to scale up interventions for chronic diseases and injuries through private and public sectors; improved public health and primary health-care systems are essential for the implementation of cost-effective interventions. We strongly advocate the need to strengthen social and policy frameworks to enable the implementation of interventions such as taxation on bidis (small hand-rolled cigarettes), smokeless tobacco, and locally brewed alcohols. We also advocate the integration of national programmes for various chronic diseases and injuries with one another and with national health agendas. India has already passed the early stages of a chronic disease and injury epidemic; in view of the implications for future disease burden and the demographic transition that is in progress in India, the rate at which effective prevention and control is implemented should be substantially increased. The emerging agenda of chronic diseases and injuries should be a political priority and central to national consciousness, if universal health care is to be achieved. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Rajalakshmi R.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Prathiba V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Mohan V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialties Center
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2016

Diabetic retinopathy (DR), one of the leading causes of preventable blindness, is associated with many systemic factors that contribute to the development and progression of this microvascular complication of diabetes. While the duration of diabetes is the major risk factor for the development of DR, the main modifiable systemic risk factors for development and progression of DR are hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This review article looks at the evidence that control of these systemic factors has significant benefits in delaying the onset and progression of DR. © 2016 Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

Pradeepa R.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre | Mohan V.,Dr Mohans Diabetes Specialities Center
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing in epidemic proportions globally, with the most marked increase in emerging economies. Among emerging economies, China and India have the highest numbers of people with diabetes and CVD. Over the last two decades, 80% of CVD and diabetes mortality occurred in low- and middle-income countries, suggesting that these disorders have become a leading threat to public health in most of the developing countries. The burden of CVD and diabetes in the developing countries affects the productive younger age group, and this has serious economic implications. Diabetes shares many characteristics and risk factors with CVD, and thus the risk for CVD also escalates with the increase in prevalence of diabetes. Both genetic and environmental factors play a major role in causation of diabetes and CVD. However, the major drivers of this dual epidemic are demographic changes with increased life expectancy, lifestyle changes due to rapid urbanization, and industrialization. To reduce the burden of diabetes and CVD in the coming decades, emerging economies need to set national goals for early diagnosis, effective management, and primary prevention of these disorders. In order to curb the epidemic of diabetes and CVD, population-based, multisectoral, multidisciplinary, and culturally relevant approaches including various departments of the government as well as non-governmental agencies are required. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Davies M.J.,University of Leicester | Gagliardino J.J.,National University of La Plata | Gray L.J.,University of Leicester | Khunti K.,University of Leicester | And 2 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2013

Aims: To identify real-world factors affecting adherence to insulin therapy in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE in November 2011 to identify studies reporting factors associated with adherence/non-adherence to insulin therapy in adults with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Results: Seventeen studies were identified; six used self-reported measures and 11 used calculated measures of adherence. Most (13/17) were conducted exclusively in the USA. Four categories of factors associated with non-adherence were identified: predictive factors for non-adherence, patient-perceived barriers to adherence, type of delivery device and cost of medication. For predictive factors and patient-perceived barriers, only age, female sex and travelling were associated with non-adherence in more than one study. Fear of injections and embarrassment of injecting in public were also cited as reasons for non-adherence. Conversely, adherence was improved by initiating therapy with, or switching to, a pen device (in four studies), and by changing to an insurance scheme that lowered the financial burden on patients (in two studies). Conclusions: Adherence to insulin therapy is generally poor. Few factors or patient-perceived barriers were consistently identified as predictive for non-adherence, although findings collectively suggest that a more flexible regimen may improve adherence. Switching to a pen device and reducing patient co-payments appear to improve adherence. Further real-world studies are warranted, especially in countries other than the USA, to identify factors associated with non-adherence and enable development of strategies to improve. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

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