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Dr. Martens is a British footwear and clothing brand, which also makes a range of accessories – shoe care products, clothing, luggage, etc. In addition to Dr. Martens, they are also commonly known as Doctor Martens, Doc Martens, Docs or DMs. The footwear is distinguished by its air-cushioned sole , upper shape, welted construction and yellow stitching. Wikipedia.

Kroken R.A.,University of Bergen | Loberg E.-M.,University of Bergen | Dronen T.,University of Bergen | Gruner R.,University of Bergen | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Antipsychotic drugs have thus far focused on dopaminergic antagonism at the D2 receptors, as counteracting the hyperdopaminergia in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic projections has been considered mandatory for the antipsychotic action of the drugs. Current drugs effectively target the positive symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions in the majority of patients, whereas effect sizes are smaller for negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions. With the understanding that neurocognitive dysfunction associated with schizophrenia have a greater impact on functional outcome than the positive symptoms, the focus in pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia has shifted to the potential effect of future drugs on cognitive enhancement. A major obstacle is, however, that the biological underpinnings of cognitive dysfunction remain largely unknown. With the availability of increasingly sophisticated techniques in molecular biology and brain imaging, this situation is about to change with major advances being made in identifying the neuronal substrates underlying schizophrenia, and putative pro-cognitive drug targets may be revealed. In relation to cognitive effects, this review focuses on evidence from basic neuroscience and clinical studies, taking two separate perspectives. One perspective is the identification of previously under-recognized treatment targets for existing antipsychotic drugs, including myelination and mediators of inflammation. A second perspective is the development of new drugs or novel treatment targets for well-known drugs, which act on recently discovered treatment targets for cognitive enhancement, and which may complement the existing drugs. This might pave the way for personalized treatment regimens for patients with schizophrenia aimed at improved functional outcome. The review also aims at identifying major current constraints for pro-cognitive drug development for patients with schizophrenia. © 2014 Kroken, Løberg, Drønen, Grüner, Hugdahl, Kompus, Skrede and Johnsen.

Lien E.A.,University of Bergen | Soiland H.,University of Bergen | Soiland H.,University of Stavanger | Lundgren S.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

It has been suggested that the concentrations of tamoxifen and its demethylated metabolites increase with age. We measured the serum concentrations of the active tamoxifen metabolites, 4OHtamoxifen (4OHtam), 4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen (4OHNDtam, Endoxifen), tamoxifen and its demethylated metabolites. Their relations to age were examined. One hundred fifty-one estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer patients were included. Their median (range) age was 57 (32-85) years. Due to the long half-life of tamoxifen, only patients treated with tamoxifen for at least 80 days were included in the study in order to insure that the patients had reached steady-state drug levels. Tamoxifen and its metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Their serum concentrations were related to the age of the patients. To circumvent effects of cytochrome (CYP) 2D6 polymorphisms we also examined these correlations exclusively in homozygous extensive metabolizers. The concentrations of 4OHNDtam, tamoxifen, NDtam (N-desmethyltamoxifen), and NDDtam (N-desdimethyltamoxifen) were positively correlated to age (n = 151, p = 0.017, 0.045, 0.011, and 0.001 respectively). When exclusively studying the CYP2D6 homozygous extensive metabolizers (n = 86) the correlation between 4OHNDtam and age increased (p = 0.008). Up to tenfold inter-patient variation in the serum concentrations was observed. The median (inter-patient range) concentration of 4OHNDtam in the age groups 30-49, 50-69, and >69 years were 65 (24-89), 116 (25-141), and 159 (26-185) ng/ml, respectively. We conclude that the serum concentrations of 4OHNDtam (endoxifen), tamoxifen, and its demethylated metabolites increase with age during steady-state tamoxifen treatment. This may represent an additional explanation why studies on the effects of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on outcome in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. The observed high inter-patient range in serum concentrations of tamoxifen and its metabolites, especially in the highest age group, suggest that use of therapeutic monitoring of tamoxifen and its metabolites is warranted. © 2013 The Author(s).

Henriksen T.E.,University of Bergen | Skrede S.,Dr Martens | Skrede S.,University of Bergen | Fasmer O.B.,University of Bergen | And 9 more authors.
Bipolar Disorders | Year: 2016

Objectives: The discovery of the blue lightsensitive retinal photoreceptor responsible for signaling daytime to the brain suggested that light to the circadian system could be inhibited by using blue-blocking orange tinted glasses. Blue-blocking (BB) glasses are a potential treatment option for bipolar mania. We examined the effectiveness of BB glasses in hospitalized patients with bipolar disorder in a manic state. Methods: In a single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT), eligible patients (with bipolar mania; age 18-70 years) were recruited from five clinics in Norway. Patients were assigned to BB glasses or placebo (clear glasses) from 6 p.m. to 8 a.m. for 7 days, in addition to treatment as usual. Symptoms were assessed daily by use of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Motor activity was assessed by actigraphy, and compared to data from a healthy control group. Wearing glasses for one evening/night qualified for inclusion in the intention-to-treat analysis. Results: From February 2012 to February 2015, 32 patients were enrolled. Eight patients dropped out and one was excluded, resulting in 12 patients in the BB group and 11 patients in the placebo group. The mean decline in YMRS score was 14.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.7-18.5] in the BB group, and 1.7 (95% CI: -4.0 to 7.4) in the placebo group, yielding an effect size of 1.86 (Cohen's d). In the BB group, one patient reported headache and two patients experienced easily reversible depressive symptoms. Conclusions: This RCT shows that BB glasses are effective and feasible as add-on treatment for bipolar mania. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Henriksen T.E.,University of Bergen | Henriksen T.E.,Norway and MoodNet Research Group | Skrede S.,Dr Martens | Skrede S.,University of Bergen | And 4 more authors.
Bipolar Disorders | Year: 2014

Objective: Available pharmacological treatment of mania is insufficient. Virtual darkness therapy (blue light-blocking treatment by means of orange-tinted glasses) is a promising new treatment option for mania. The basis for this might be the recently identified blue light-sensitive retinal photoreceptor, which is solely responsible for light stimulus to the circadian master clock. This is the first case report describing the clinical course of a closely monitored, hospitalized patient in a manic episode first receiving clear-lensed, and then blue light-blocking glasses. Methods: A 58-year-old Caucasian man, with bipolar I disorder and three previous manic episodes, was hospitalized during a manic episode. In addition to pharmacological treatment, he was treated with clear-lensed glasses for seven days, then one day without glasses, followed by six days of blue light-blocking glasses. During the entire observational period, he wore an actigraph with internal light sensors. Results: Manic symptoms were unaltered during the first seven days. The transition to the blue-blocking regime was followed by a rapid and sustained decline in manic symptoms accompanied by a reduction in total sleep, a reduction in motor activity during sleep intervals, and markedly increased regularity of sleep intervals. The patient's total length of hospital stay was 20 days shorter than the average time during his previous manic episodes. Conclusions: The unusually rapid decline in symptoms, accompanied by uniform sleep parameter changes toward markedly increased regularity, suggest that blue-blockers might be targeting a central mechanism in the pathophysiology of mania that needs to be explored both in clinical research and in basic science. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Dr. Maertens Marketing Gmbh and Dr Martens | Date: 2013-07-18

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