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Vijay M.,Annamalai University | Sivagami G.,Annamalai University | Thayalan K.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Nalini N.,Annamalai University
Bratislava Medical Journal | Year: 2016

AIM: The present study was focused at evaluating the potential of rutin to improve the radiotherapeutic index and thereby the cytotoxicity towards colon cancer cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HT-29 cells were pre-treated with rutin and the effect on cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay followed by exposure to radiation. After irradiation, experimental groups were sham control, rutin alone, radiation alone, rutin along with radiation-treated HT-29 cells. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity study illustrated that treatment of HT-29 cells with different concentrations of rutin reduced cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After irradiation, the HT-29 cells revealed that the combined effect of 4 Gy radiation and rutin at 80 μM concentration showed a decrease in cell viability as compared to rutin-alone treated and 4 Gy-alone irradiated HT-29 cells. Furthermore, the increase in apoptotic cells, change from normal nuclei to abnormal nuclei, alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in DNA damage, increase in levels of lipid peroxidative markers, and decrease in antioxidant status were observed in 4 Gy- and rutin-treated group as compared to the other treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Combined effect of rutin and radiation in HT-29 cells leads to a more pronounced cell death rate. Thus, rutin exhibits radiosensitizing effects on HT-29 cells.


Stewart Coats A.J.,University of East Anglia | Srinivasan V.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Surendran J.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Chiramana H.,Shree Krishna Hospital and Medical Research Center | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle | Year: 2011

Aims: Cachexia, the wasting disorder associated with a wide range of serious illnesses including cancer, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is currently no widely approved therapeutic agent for treating or preventing cancer-associated cachexia. Colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer have relatively high incidences of cachexia, approximately 28% and 34%, respectively. Neurohormonal overactivity has been implicated in the genesis and progression of cachexia and beta receptor antagonism has been proposed as a potential therapy. MT-102, a novel anabolic/catabolic transforming agent, has a multi-functional effect upon three potential pharmacological targets in cancer cachexia, namely reduced catabolism through non-selective β-blockade, reduced fatigue, and thermogenesis through central 5-HT1a antagonism and increased anabolism through partial β-2 receptor agonism. Methods: At least 132 male and female patients, aged between 25 and 80 years with a confirmed diagnosis of late-stage non-small cell lung cancer or colorectal cancer, with cachexia will be randomised to either one of the two MT-102 doses or placebo in a 3:1:2 ratio (MT-102 10 mg BD-1/MT-102 2.5 mg BD/placebo). Patients will continue on study treatment for maximally 16 weeks. The primary endpoint, to be analysed by assigned treatment group, will be body weight change over 16 weeks. For this endpoint, the study has 85% power (0.05% significance level) to detect per 4-week period a mean change of -0.8 kg in the placebo group and 0 kg in the high-dose MT-102 arm. The first patient was randomised in February 2011 and patient recruitment is expected to continue until mid-2012. Perspective: The ACT-ONE trial is designed to test whether the anabolic/catabolic transforming agent MT-102 will positively impact on the rate of change of body weight in cancer cachexia, thereby evaluating a novel therapeutic strategy in this hitherto poorly treatable condition. A separate ACT-TWO trial will recruit patients who complete the ACT-ONE trial and remain on randomised double-blind medication. Participants in ACT-TWO will be followed for an additional period with a separate primary endpoint. © 2011 The Author(s).


PubMed | Koo Foundation Sun Yat Sen Cancer Center Hospital, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Calmette Hospital, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute and 21 more.
Type: Historical Article | Journal: Australasian physical & engineering sciences in medicine | Year: 2015

The history of medical physics in Asia-Oceania goes back to the late nineteenth century when X-ray imaging was introduced, although medical physicists were not appointed until much later. Medical physics developed very quickly in some countries, but in others the socio-economic situation as such prevented it being established for many years. In others, the political situation and war has impeded its development. In many countries their medical physics history has not been well recorded and there is a danger that it will be lost to future generations. In this paper, brief histories of the development of medical physics in most countries in Asia-Oceania are presented by a large number of authors to serve as a record. The histories are necessarily brief; otherwise the paper would quickly turn into a book of hundreds of pages. The emphasis in each history as recorded here varies as the focus and culture of the countries as well as the length of their histories varies considerably.


Maria Dorathi Anu M.,Pachiyappas College | Jayanthi M.,Pachiyappas College | Damodar Kumar S.,Pachiyappas College | Raja S.,Gandhi Institute of Technology and Management | Thirunavukkarasu S.V.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital
International Journal of ChemTech Research | Year: 2013

A new series of novel some substituted tetrazole derivatives (Compounds I-V) were synthesized by tetrazole react with different types of carbazone derivatives and various substituted type of benzaldehyde. The entire resulting compounds were characterized and confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass and elemental analysis data. The antimicrobial activity of synthesized substituted tetrazole derivatives (compounds I-V) possess moderate specific activity (inhibition) against E-coli and are inactive against Staphylococcus aureus. Further, these compounds were screened for the anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw oedema method in rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. The compounds (I-V) showed moderate enhancement of the activity. Among the tested compound, compound V [1,1-dimethyl-3-(phenyl (1H- tetrazol-1-yl) methyl amino urea] exhibited potential anti-inflammatory activity when compared to standard phenylbutazone (PBZ) at 5 mg/kg/po). From the above results, the relationship between the functional group variation and the biological activity of the evaluated compounds is discussed and the compound V was determined to be the most active.


Arivalagan S.,Annamalai University | Susan Thomas N.,Annamalai University | Kuppusamy T.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Namasivayam N.,Annamalai University
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology | Year: 2015

In the present study, we evaluated the radioprotective effect of carvacrol (CVC) against X-radiation– induced cellular damage in cultured human blood lymphocytes. By MTT assay, the LD50 doses of CVC and X-radiation to lymphocytes were determined to be 100 µg/ml and 4 Gy, respectively. To explore the radioprotective effect of CVC, the cultured lymphocytes were treated with 100 µg/mL of CVC 30 min prior to 4 Gy irradiation. Subsequently, the radiation-induced damage was screened by micronuclei (MN) and dicentric chromosome (DC) frequencies and comet assay. The percentage of cell death was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. The radiation-induced oxidative stress was estimated by assessing the changes in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation markers. Compared with the sham control, we observed increases in MN and DC frequencies, comet attributes, % cell death, and lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant status of the lymphocytes treated with radiation alone. Pre-treatment of lymphocytes with CVC (100 µg/mL) altered those changes mediated by radiation. These results clearly indicate that CVC may be an effective radioprotector against X-radiation. It has the ability to scavenge the free radicals produced and to protect cells from radiation-induced cell damage. © 2015 by Begell House, Inc.


Kalpana K.B.,Annamalai University | Vishwanathan P.,Annamalai University | Thayalan K.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Menon V.P.,Annamalai University
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the radioprotective effect of dendrodoine analog (DA) against radiation-induced damage in the liver of mice. The study was divided into two phases; in the first phase, the effective concentration of DA was fixed by performing a survival study. In the second phase, the fixed effective concentration of DA was orally administered to mice to evaluate its radioprotective efficacy by performing various assays. The results indicated that the radiation-induced decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and comet parameters were altered by pre-administration with the effective concentration of DA which restored the antioxidant status to near normal and decreased the level of the TBARS and comet parameters. The histopathological examinations further confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of DA in mice. Thus, the current study showed DA to be an effective radioprotector against radiation induced damage in the liver of mice. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Kalpana K.B.,Annamalai University | Thayalan K.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Menon V.P.,Annamalai University
Open Nutraceuticals Journal | Year: 2012

The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of dendrodoine analog (DA), an aminothiazole derivative against the formation of radiation induced dicentric (DC) aberration frequency on cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. DA was chemically synthesized and the product thus obtained was purified using column chromatography packed with silica gel using chloroform as the solvent. The purity status of the final product was assessed employing high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The radioprotective efficacy of DA against the formation of DC aberration frequency was analyzed by pre-incubating human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the optimum concentration of DA, selected from our previous study, followed by exposure to different doses of radiation. The results indicated that there was a dose dependent increase in the formation of DC aberration frequency in the irradiated groups when compared to DA pre-treated groups which modulated the toxic effects of radiation by means of its effective DNA protective and antioxidant property. © Kalpana et al.


PubMed | Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital and Annamalai University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer | Year: 2015

In the present study, we evaluated the radioprotective effect of carvacrol (CVC) against X-radiation-induced cellular damage in cultured human blood lymphocytes. By MTT assay, the LD50 doses of CVC and X-radiation to lymphocytes were determined to be 100 g/ml and 4 Gy, respectively. To explore the radioprotective effect of CVC, the cultured lymphocytes were treated with 100 g/mL of CVC 30 min prior to 4 Gy irradiation. Subsequently, the radiation-induced damage was screened by micronuclei (MN) and dicentric chromosome (DC) frequencies and comet assay. The percentage of cell death was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. The radiation-induced oxidative stress was estimated by assessing the changes in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation markers. Compared with the sham control, we observed increases in MN and DC frequencies, comet attributes, % cell death, and lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant status of the lymphocytes treated with radiation alone. Pre-treatment of lymphocytes with CVC (100 g/mL) altered those changes mediated by radiation. These results clearly indicate that CVC may be an effective radioprotector against X-radiation. It has the ability to scavenge the free radicals produced and to protect cells from radiation-induced cell damage.


PubMed | Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital and Annamalai University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular and cellular biochemistry | Year: 2015

Colon cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the combined therapeutic efficacy of carvacrol (CVC) and X-radiation against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1 served as control; group 2 received 40 mg/kg b.wt of CVC orally everyday throughout the experimental period (32 weeks); groups 3-6 received subcutaneous injections of DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt), once a week for the first 15 weeks; group 4 received a single dose of X-radiation at the 31st week; group 5 received CVC (40 mg/kg b.wt) two days after the last injection of DMH and continued everyday till the end of the experimental period; group 6 received CVC as in group 5 and radiation as in group 4. DMH-treated rats showed increased incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic aberrant crypt foci (DACF), mast cell number, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions; elevated activities of phase I enzymes, decreased activities of phase II enzymes, decreased mucin content and altered colonic and liver histology as compared to control rats. Though the individual treatments with CVC and X-radiation to DMH-treated rats reversed the above changes, the combined treatment with both CVC and X-radiation showed a marked effect. Our findings emphasize the potential role of combined therapeutic effect of CVC and X-radiation against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis.


Murugan A.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Murugan A.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Valas X.S.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Thayalan K.,Dr Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Ramasubramanian V.,Vellore Institute of Technology
Journal of Medical Physics | Year: 2011

The computerized treatment planning system plays a major role in radiation therapy in delivering correct radiation dose to the patients within ±5% as recommended by the ICRU. To evaluate the dosimetric performance of the Treatment Planning system (TPS) with three-dimensional dose calculation algorithm using the basic beam data measured for 6 MV X-rays. Eleven numbers of test cases were created according to the Technical Report Series-430 (TRS 430) and are used to evaluate the TPS in a homogeneous water phantom. These cases involve simple field arrangements as well as the presence of a low-density material in the beam to resemble an air in-homogeneity. Absolute dose measurements were performed for the each case with the MU calculation given by the TPS, and the measured dose is compared with the corresponding TPS calculated dose values. The result yields a percentage difference maximum of 2.38% for all simple test cases. For complex test cases in the presence of in-homogeneity, beam modifiers or beam modifiers with asymmetric fields a maximum percentage difference of 5.94% was observed. This study ensures that the dosimetric calculations performed by the TPS are within the accuracy of ±5% which is very much warranted in patient dose delivery. The test procedures are simple, not only during the installation of TPS, but also repeated at periodic intervals.

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