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Khetan V.,College Road | Gopal L.,College Road | Gopal L.,National University Hospital Singapore | Shanmugam M.,Ocular Oncology and Vitreoretinal Services | And 8 more authors.
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Aim: To report our experience of brachytherapy using ′BARC I-125 Ocu-Prosta seeds′ for the management of intraocular tumors with regard to tumor control, globe preservation visual outcome, and patient survival at Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India between September 2003 and May 2011. Materials and Methods: We reviewed records of 35 eyes of 35 patients who underwent ophthalmic brachytherapy between September 2003 and May 2011. Twenty-one cases had choroidal melanoma, nine had childhood retinoblastoma, two had adult-onset retinoblastoma, and there were one case each of vasoproliferative tumor, retinal angioma, and ciliary body melanoma. Brachytherapy was administered using a 15-or 20-mm gold plaque with or without a notch. Brachytherapy was the primary treatment modality in all tumors other than retinoblastoma, wherein brachytherapy was done post chemoreduction for residual tumor. Results: For choroidal melanomas, the mean radiation dose was 68.69 ± 15.07 (range, 47.72-94.2) Gy. The eye salvage rate was 13/20 (65%) and tumor control rate was 16/20 (80%) at an average follow-up of 24.43 ± 24.75 (range, 1.5-87.98) months. For retinoblastoma, the mean dose was 45.85 ± 3.90 (range, 39.51-50.92) Gy. The eye salvage rate and tumor control rate was 5/6 (83.3%) at an average follow-up of 38.36 ± 31.33 (range, 4.14-97.78) months. All eyes with retinoblastoma needed additional focal therapy for tumor control and eye salvage. Conclusion: The results of this retrospective study confirms that the use of ′BARC I-125 Ocu-Prosta seeds′ in episcleral plaques to treat intraocular tumors offers a viable option for the management of intraocular cancers.

Arivalagan S.,Annamalai University | Susan Thomas N.,Annamalai University | Kuppusamy T.,Dr. Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Namasivayam N.,Annamalai University
Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology | Year: 2015

In the present study, we evaluated the radioprotective effect of carvacrol (CVC) against X-radiation– induced cellular damage in cultured human blood lymphocytes. By MTT assay, the LD50 doses of CVC and X-radiation to lymphocytes were determined to be 100 µg/ml and 4 Gy, respectively. To explore the radioprotective effect of CVC, the cultured lymphocytes were treated with 100 µg/mL of CVC 30 min prior to 4 Gy irradiation. Subsequently, the radiation-induced damage was screened by micronuclei (MN) and dicentric chromosome (DC) frequencies and comet assay. The percentage of cell death was evaluated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining. The radiation-induced oxidative stress was estimated by assessing the changes in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation markers. Compared with the sham control, we observed increases in MN and DC frequencies, comet attributes, % cell death, and lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant status of the lymphocytes treated with radiation alone. Pre-treatment of lymphocytes with CVC (100 µg/mL) altered those changes mediated by radiation. These results clearly indicate that CVC may be an effective radioprotector against X-radiation. It has the ability to scavenge the free radicals produced and to protect cells from radiation-induced cell damage. © 2015 by Begell House, Inc.

Kalpana K.B.,Annamalai University | Thayalan K.,Dr. Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Menon V.P.,Annamalai University
Open Nutraceuticals Journal | Year: 2012

The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of dendrodoine analog (DA), an aminothiazole derivative against the formation of radiation induced dicentric (DC) aberration frequency on cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. DA was chemically synthesized and the product thus obtained was purified using column chromatography packed with silica gel using chloroform as the solvent. The purity status of the final product was assessed employing high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The radioprotective efficacy of DA against the formation of DC aberration frequency was analyzed by pre-incubating human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the optimum concentration of DA, selected from our previous study, followed by exposure to different doses of radiation. The results indicated that there was a dose dependent increase in the formation of DC aberration frequency in the irradiated groups when compared to DA pre-treated groups which modulated the toxic effects of radiation by means of its effective DNA protective and antioxidant property. © Kalpana et al.

Kalpana K.B.,Annamalai University | Vishwanathan P.,Annamalai University | Thayalan K.,Dr. Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Menon V.P.,Annamalai University
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the radioprotective effect of dendrodoine analog (DA) against radiation-induced damage in the liver of mice. The study was divided into two phases; in the first phase, the effective concentration of DA was fixed by performing a survival study. In the second phase, the fixed effective concentration of DA was orally administered to mice to evaluate its radioprotective efficacy by performing various assays. The results indicated that the radiation-induced decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and comet parameters were altered by pre-administration with the effective concentration of DA which restored the antioxidant status to near normal and decreased the level of the TBARS and comet parameters. The histopathological examinations further confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of DA in mice. Thus, the current study showed DA to be an effective radioprotector against radiation induced damage in the liver of mice. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Stewart Coats A.J.,University of East Anglia | Srinivasan V.,Dr. Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Surendran J.,Dr. Kamakshi Memorial Hospital | Chiramana H.,tel Cancer Center | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle | Year: 2011

Aims: Cachexia, the wasting disorder associated with a wide range of serious illnesses including cancer, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. There is currently no widely approved therapeutic agent for treating or preventing cancer-associated cachexia. Colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer have relatively high incidences of cachexia, approximately 28% and 34%, respectively. Neurohormonal overactivity has been implicated in the genesis and progression of cachexia and beta receptor antagonism has been proposed as a potential therapy. MT-102, a novel anabolic/catabolic transforming agent, has a multi-functional effect upon three potential pharmacological targets in cancer cachexia, namely reduced catabolism through non-selective β-blockade, reduced fatigue, and thermogenesis through central 5-HT1a antagonism and increased anabolism through partial β-2 receptor agonism. Methods: At least 132 male and female patients, aged between 25 and 80 years with a confirmed diagnosis of late-stage non-small cell lung cancer or colorectal cancer, with cachexia will be randomised to either one of the two MT-102 doses or placebo in a 3:1:2 ratio (MT-102 10 mg BD-1/MT-102 2.5 mg BD/placebo). Patients will continue on study treatment for maximally 16 weeks. The primary endpoint, to be analysed by assigned treatment group, will be body weight change over 16 weeks. For this endpoint, the study has 85% power (0.05% significance level) to detect per 4-week period a mean change of -0.8 kg in the placebo group and 0 kg in the high-dose MT-102 arm. The first patient was randomised in February 2011 and patient recruitment is expected to continue until mid-2012. Perspective: The ACT-ONE trial is designed to test whether the anabolic/catabolic transforming agent MT-102 will positively impact on the rate of change of body weight in cancer cachexia, thereby evaluating a novel therapeutic strategy in this hitherto poorly treatable condition. A separate ACT-TWO trial will recruit patients who complete the ACT-ONE trial and remain on randomised double-blind medication. Participants in ACT-TWO will be followed for an additional period with a separate primary endpoint. © 2011 The Author(s).

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