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Vilas G.L.,University of Alberta | Loganathan S.K.,University of Alberta | Quon A.,University of Alberta | Sundaresan P.,Dr G Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2012

Mutations in the SLC4A11 gene, which encodes a plasma membrane borate transporter, cause recessive congenital hereditary endothelial corneal dystrophy type 2 (CHED2), corneal dystrophy and perceptive deafness (Harboyan syndrome), and dominant late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). We analyzed missense SLC4A11 mutations identified in FECD and CHED2 patients and expressed in transfected HEK 293 cells. Chemical cross-linking and migration in nondenaturing gels showed that SLC4A11 exists as a dimer. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation of epitopetagged proteins revealed heteromeric interactions between wild-type (WT) and mutant SLC4A11 proteins. When expressed alone, FECD- and CHED2-causing mutant SLC4A11 proteins are primarily retained intracellularly. Co-expression with WT SLC4A11 partially rescued the cell surface trafficking of CHED2 mutants, but not FECD mutants. CHED2 alleles of SLC4A11 did not affect cell surface processing of WT SLC4A11. In contrast, FECD mutants reduced WT cell surface processing efficiency, consistent with dominant inheritance of FECD. The reduction in movement of WT protein to the cell surface caused by FECD SLC4A11 helps to explain the dominant inheritance of this disorder. Similarly, the failure of CHED2 mutant SLC4A11 to affect the processing of WT protein, explains the lack of symptoms found in CHED2 carriers and the recessive inheritance of the disorder. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Sundaresan P.,Dr G Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute | Simpson D.A.,Queens University of Belfast | Sambare C.,Queens University of Belfast | Duffy S.,Queens University of Belfast | And 9 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2015

Purpose:The aim of this study was to determine whether mutations in mitochondrial DNA play a role in high-pressure primary open-angle glaucoma (OMIM 137760) by analyzing new data from massively parallel sequencing of mitochondrial DNA.Methods:Glaucoma patients with high-tension primary open-angle glaucoma and ethnically matched and age-matched control subjects without glaucoma were recruited. The entire human mitochondrial genome was amplified in two overlapping fragments by long-range polymerase chain reaction and used as a template for massively parallel sequencing on an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. All variants were confirmed by conventional Sanger sequencing.Results:Whole-mitochondrial genome sequencing was performed in 32 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma from India (n = 16) and Ireland (n = 16). In 16 of the 32 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (50% of cases), there were 22 mitochondrial DNA mutations consisting of 7 novel mutations and 8 previously reported disease-associated sequence variants. Eight of 22 (36.4%) of the mitochondrial DNA mutations were in complex I mitochondrial genes.Conclusion:Massively parallel sequencing using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine with confirmation by Sanger sequencing detected a pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutation in 50% of the primary open-angle glaucoma cohort. Our findings support the emerging concept that mitochondrial dysfunction results in the development of glaucoma and, more specifically, that complex I defects play a significant role in primary open-angle glaucoma pathogenesis.Genet Med 17 4, 279-284. Source

Balasubbu S.,Dr G Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science | Year: 2012

Glaucoma comprises a heterogeneous group of optic neuropathies with a complex genetic basis. It is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. This study investigates the association of SNPs on chromosome 2p with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a Southern Indian population. Case-control analysis was performed using 220 unrelated POAG cases and 220 age-matched unaffected controls recruited through the Aravind Eye Hospital and its outlying clinics. Five SNPs (rs1533428, rs12994401, rs10202118, rs11125375, and rs11889995) on chromosome 2p were evaluated in these two groups and genotyped using Taq Man SNP genotyping assay. Statistical analysis was performed using the SVS program package by Golden Helix to identify the distributions of allele and genotype frequencies, Fisher exact test P values, and odds ratios and to check Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Among the five SNPs screened, SNP rs10202118, showed a P = 0.026 for the basic allelic test, P = 0.004 for the genotypic test, and P = 0.0014 for the recessive model. The second suggestive marker was rs11125375, which also showed P = 0.033 for the recessive model. The associated SNPs formed a common disease haplotype. The remaining three SNPs showed insignificant association in this study population. This was the first study to demonstrate the association of SNPs on chromosome 2p in patients with POAG in the Indian population. The two tagging SNPs (rs10202118 and rs11125375) on chromosome 2p are the most likely sites underlying the significant association with POAG in this study population. Source

Ananthi S.,Dr G Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute | Venkatesh Prajna N.,Cornea Clinic | Lalitha P.,Aravind Eye Hospital | Valarnila M.,Dr G Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute | Dharmalingam K.,Madurai Kamaraj University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Fusarium is the major causative agent of fungal infections leading to corneal ulcer (keratitis) in Southern India and other tropical countries. Keratitis caused by Fusarium is a difficult disease to treat unless antifungal therapy is initiated during the early stages of infection. In this study tear proteins were prepared from keratitis patients classified based on the duration of infection. Among the patients recruited, early infection (n = 35), intermediate (n = 20), late (n = 11), samples from five patients in each group were pooled for analysis. Control samples were a pool of samples from 20 patients. Proteins were separated on difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and the differentially expressed proteins were quantified using DeCyder software analysis. The following differentially expressed proteins namely alpha-1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin α2 chain, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein, albumin, haptoglobin precursor - β chain, lactoferrin, lacrimal lipocalin precursor, cystatin SA III precursor, lacritin precursor were identified using mass spectrometry. Variation in the expression level of some of the proteins was confirmed using western blot analysis. This is the first report to show stage specific tear protein profile in fungal keratitis patients. Validation of this data using a much larger sample set could lead to clinical application of these findings. © 2013 Ananthi et al. Source

Ananthi S.,Dr G Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute | Santhosh R.S.,Dr G Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute | Nila M.V.,Dr G Venkataswamy Eye Research Institute | Prajna N.V.,Cornea Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Eye Research | Year: 2011

The proteomic profile of tear fluid is of fundamental interest in eye research. In this study we optimized the tear sample preparation method for two-dimensional (2D) analysis and determined the protein profile of tear fluid from healthy males and females. To find the most efficient method for tear sample preparation, four widely applied precipitation methods and ultrafiltration were compared. Of these, TCA precipitation & ultrafiltration resulted in efficient sample concentration and desalting. Use of a nonionic wetting agent, Tergitol NP7, in rehydration solution during isoelectric focusing improves protein separation in 2D gel electrophoresis considerably. Using this optimized method, tear protein profile was analyzed from healthy males and females. Of the thirty six tear proteins identified by LC-MS/MS, seven tear proteins were found to be significantly up regulated in the healthy female tear samples when compared to the male tear samples. These results indicate that the tear protein profile differs with respect to the sex. Mostly, the up regulated proteins are involved in the local immune defense; implying that there may be a sex difference in the ability to defend against infection at the anterior segment of the eyes of normal individuals. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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