Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University

Āgra, India

Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University

Āgra, India

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Singh R.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Sharma B.S.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Chalka S.N.,Maharashi Dayanad Sawaraswati University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

Atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on the environment particularly on human health is an issue of significant public and governmental concern. Though studies on air quality related to total suspended particulate matter have done by various authors in India, yet respirable suspended particulate matter (PM10) is not characterized so far particularly in a historical and world heritage city like Agra. This study presents seasonal variation in mass levels of PM10 and its ionic composition. PM10 samples were collected in the proximity of Taj Mahal and subjected to chemical analysis using ion chromatography technique. The preliminary findings reveal that the 24-h average of PM10 mass level varies from 115 to 233, 155 to 321, and 33 to 178 μg/m3, respectively, in summer, winter, and rainy seasons indicating critical pollution situation. These values are very much higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards of 75 μg/m3 (prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board, India) in both of summer and winter seasons whereas quite near the permissible limits in rainy season. The equivalent ratios of NH4 + to nonsea salt SO4 2- and NO3 - and ∑ Cations to ∑ Anios were found to be greater than unity indicating high source strength of ammonia and alkaline nature of aerosols. The study suggests the need for continuous and long-term systematical sampling and detailed physiochemical analysis of PM 10 and also to know the characteristics of PM in background areas for better understanding of the emission sources. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Masih A.,Environmental Research Laboratory | Lall A.S.,Environmental Research Laboratory | Taneja A.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Singhvi R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

BTEX are recognized for their contribution as toxic and carcinogenic human health effects, and enhancement of the global greenhouse effect. Thus, an investigation of ambient BTEX was conducted at selected locations in Gorakhpur for a span of one year in order to ascertain the contagion levels. The concentrations of BTEX were measured at four locations in the city of Gorakhpur, which covers residential, agricultural, roadside and industrial areas with the help of low volume sampler. The samples were extracted with carbon disulphide by occasional agitation and the aromatic fraction was subjected to GC-FID. The average concentration of total BTEX in all samples was 50.8 μg/m3 and the total range was from 10.9 μg/m3 to 208.1 μg/m3 with the median of 44.8 μg/m3. The BTEX concentrations were found to be 27.8, 35.9, 65.6 and 68.6 μg/m3 at residential, agricultural, roadside and industrial sites respectively. The maximum concentration of total BTEX was found to be 61.9 μg/m3 in winter season, followed by 47.9 μg/m3 in summer and 42.7 μg/m3 in monsoon season. The industrial site (35%) had the highest BTEX contribution followed by roadside (33%), agricultural (18%) and residential site (14%). The concentration of BTEX decreased in the order toluene > benzene > ethylbenzene > xylene. The integrated lifetime cancer risk for benzene at all sites, and ethylbenzene at roadside area was found to be higher than the acceptable value and ranges between 1.0E-05 and 7.6E-06, although the non-cancer health risk was found to be within acceptable limit along all the sites. Risk assessment can be used as a tool to ascertain influence on public health and also to encourage risk preclusion approaches directed towards effectual reduction of adverse health effects. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Masih A.,Environmental Research Laboratory | Taneja A.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Singhvi R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2016

Human hair is frequently used as a bioindicator of mercury exposure. Mercury (Hg) has for centuries been a useful metal in a variety of applications. Unfortunately, this usefulness is counterbalanced by its neurotoxicological health impact. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends keeping the hair Hg level <1.0 µg/g. Therefore, an investigation has been performed in order to ascertain the hair Hg levels among the people living at the terai belt of North India. Hair samples were collected from 111 individuals and were placed in an identified plastic bag, stapled to prevent the shift of the hair strand. Samples were analyzed by combustion, gold amalgamation, atomic absorption spectrometry (C-GA-AAS). The mean Hg level in hair was 0.28 µg/g for the whole group ranging from 0.0012 to 1.9091 µg/g. The mean hair Hg levels were 0.16 µg/g for men and 0.12 µg/g for women, indicating that men had higher hair Hg levels than women. Total hair Hg was found to be significantly associated with age, gender and fish consumption frequency. 98 % of the total sample had hair Hg concentrations less than 1.0 µg/g, i.e, within safe dose, whereas only 2 % had Hg concentrations greater than 1.0 µg/g, thereby exceeding the safe dose. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


PubMed | U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University and Environmental Research Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental geochemistry and health | Year: 2016

Human hair is frequently used as a bioindicator of mercury exposure. Mercury (Hg) has for centuries been a useful metal in a variety of applications. Unfortunately, this usefulness is counterbalanced by its neurotoxicological health impact. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends keeping the hair Hg level <1.0g/g. Therefore, an investigation has been performed in order to ascertain the hair Hg levels among the people living at the terai belt of North India. Hair samples were collected from 111 individuals and were placed in an identified plastic bag, stapled to prevent the shift of the hair strand. Samples were analyzed by combustion, gold amalgamation, atomic absorption spectrometry (C-GA-AAS). The mean Hg level in hair was 0.28g/g for the whole group ranging from 0.0012 to 1.9091g/g. The mean hair Hg levels were 0.16g/g for men and 0.12g/g for women, indicating that men had higher hair Hg levels than women. Total hair Hg was found to be significantly associated with age, gender and fish consumption frequency. 98% of the total sample had hair Hg concentrations less than 1.0g/g, i.e, within safe dose, whereas only 2% had Hg concentrations greater than 1.0g/g, thereby exceeding the safe dose.


Anand D.,Mahamaya Technical University | Singh M.P.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Gupta M.,HITM
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2014

Conservatory growers want steadfast amount of yields so as to precisely meet the demand. Objective of this paper is to apply rule based fuzzy inference system (RBFIS) to forecasting crop yield by using ecological parameters. Inputs to RBFIS are derived from a crop development model (temperature, humidity, water/ irrigation, available soil, fertilizers and seed quality). RBFIS has two output nodes, for the quality and the quantity of yield, with potato as a case. © Springer India 2014.


Singh R.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Sharma B.S.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2012

Air samples for PM10 (dp<10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) were collected from March 2007 to February 2008 near Taj Mahal-a historically sensitive site in Agra. Each sample collected on 20.3×25.4-cm Whatman quartz microfiber filter using respirable dust sampler was analyzed gravimetrically for mass concentrations and chemically for elements such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Cd, Ba, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and inorganic ions such as NH4 +, K +, SO 4 2-, NO3 -, F -, and Cl - by ion chromatograph. Annual average of PM10 155.47±77.97 μg/m 3 was three times high the annual average NAAQ standard of 50 μg/m 3 for sensitive area. PM 10 as well as K +, Cl -, As, and Pb were higher in winter while crust elements and secondary aerosols were higher in summer. The average equivalent ratio of NH4 + to sum up of SO 4 2 - and NO 3 - was greater than unity which indicates high source strength of ammonia and alkaline nature of aerosols in Agra. Source apportionment of PM 10 was carried out by factor analysis using principal component analysis (varimax rotated factor matrix method) of SPSS. Five sources contributing to PM 10 were identified as crust material, vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, coal and biomass burning, and secondary aerosols. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.


Parveen R.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Saini R.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Taneja A.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2016

Rapid industrialization and urbanization have contaminated air and soil by heavy metals and metalloids from biogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic sources in many areas of the world, either directly or indirectly. A case study was conducted in three different microenvironments, i.e., residential sites, official sites and official sites; for each sites, we choose two different locations to examine the elemental concentration in fine particulate matter and soil and health risk assessment. The concentration values of heavy metals and metalloid in the air and soil in the Agra region were measured using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry. The exposure factor and health risk assessment for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects due to heavy metals and metalloid contaminants have been calculated for both children and adults by following the methodology prescribed by USEPA. For the elements As, Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb selected for the carcinogenic health risk assessment, the calculated results lie above the threshold ranges. We observed the lifetime exposure to heavy metals through mainly three pathways, ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact of soil and air from that particular area. Therefore, the overall hazard quotient (HQ) values for children are more than that of adults. The assessment of health risk signifies that there were mainly three exposure pathways for people: ingested, dermal contact and inhalation. The major exposure pathway of heavy metals to both children and adults is ingestion. The values of HQ are higher than the safe level (=1), indicating a high risk exists in present condition. Meanwhile, HQs value for children is higher than that for adults, indicating that children have higher potential health risk than adults in this region. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Bhushan B.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Saxena P.N.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Saxena N.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University
Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju | Year: 2013

Cypermethrin and beta-cyfl uthrin are two most widely used multipurpose pyrethroids. After determining their oral LD50 (416.98 mg kg -1 and 354.8 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively), we assessed their hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats following acute (0.1 LD 50 for 1 day) and sub-acute (0.1 LD50 for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days) poisoning. The assessment was based on hepatic marker enzymes AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, glycogen, total proteins, total lipids, cholesterol, free fatty acids, and phospholipids. AST, ALT, LDH, total lipids, cholesterol, phospholipids, and free fatty acids in hepatic homogenate increased following pyrethroid stress. In contrast, hepatic proteins, glycogen, and ALP activity decreased due to lysis of structural proteins and leakage of enzymes into the blood stream. Biochemical data were consistent with histological alterations (cytoplasmic vacuolisation, nuclear polymorphism, eccentric nucleus, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and sinusoidal dilation). Comparatively greater hepatocellular damage was noted in beta-cyfl uthrin than in cypermethrin-treated rats, which is probably related to the fl uorine atom in beta-cyfl uthrin.


Singh P.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Saini R.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Taneja A.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2014

The present study shows the current scenario of the aggregate relation between income and pollution at the household level. The indoor sampling of fine particulate matter was conducted in low- middle- and high-income group homes in Agra City, the North Central region of India. The mean indoor concentrations of PM2.5 were 46.7 μg/m3, 39.2 μg/m3 and 25.6 μg/m3 in low- middle- and high-income group homes respectively. The full-day variation revealed that the concentrations of fine particles were higher during morning and evening hours in all the three income group homes. The indoor meteorological parameters were also monitored. Using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) chemical and elemental analysis of fine particles and their probable sources has been conducted in low- middle- high-income group homes. EDS spectra indicates the elemental composition of PM2.5 which can be distributed into following groups of particles i.e. C-O rich (54%), F rich (42%) and other (4%) in low- income group homes. In middle- and high-income group homes F rich (59-65%), C-O rich (32-37%) and other (3-4%) were observed in PM2.5. The SEM images of fine particles indicates that the particles are clustered into following groups i.e. aluminosilicates/silica particles, spherical carbon rich particles, nearly spherical fluorine rich particles, Mg-Si or Mg- Si-Al particles. © Author(s) 2014.


PubMed | Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University
Type: | Journal: Environmental geochemistry and health | Year: 2016

Rapid industrialization and urbanization have contaminated air and soil by heavy metals and metalloids from biogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic sources in many areas of the world, either directly or indirectly. A case study was conducted in three different microenvironments, i.e., residential sites, official sites and official sites; for each sites, we choose two different locations to examine the elemental concentration in fine particulate matter and soil and health risk assessment. The concentration values of heavy metals and metalloid in the air and soil in the Agra region were measured using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry. The exposure factor and health risk assessment for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects due to heavy metals and metalloid contaminants have been calculated for both children and adults by following the methodology prescribed by USEPA. For the elements As, Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb selected for the carcinogenic health risk assessment, the calculated results lie above the threshold ranges. We observed the lifetime exposure to heavy metals through mainly three pathways, ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact of soil and air from that particular area. Therefore, the overall hazard quotient (HQ) values for children are more than that of adults. The assessment of health risk signifies that there were mainly three exposure pathways for people: ingested, dermal contact and inhalation. The major exposure pathway of heavy metals to both children and adults is ingestion. The values of HQ are higher than the safe level (=1), indicating a high risk exists in present condition. Meanwhile, HQs value for children is higher than that for adults, indicating that children have higher potential health risk than adults in this region.

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