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Masih A.,Environmental Research Laboratory | Taneja A.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Singhvi R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Environmental Geochemistry and Health

Human hair is frequently used as a bioindicator of mercury exposure. Mercury (Hg) has for centuries been a useful metal in a variety of applications. Unfortunately, this usefulness is counterbalanced by its neurotoxicological health impact. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends keeping the hair Hg level <1.0 µg/g. Therefore, an investigation has been performed in order to ascertain the hair Hg levels among the people living at the terai belt of North India. Hair samples were collected from 111 individuals and were placed in an identified plastic bag, stapled to prevent the shift of the hair strand. Samples were analyzed by combustion, gold amalgamation, atomic absorption spectrometry (C-GA-AAS). The mean Hg level in hair was 0.28 µg/g for the whole group ranging from 0.0012 to 1.9091 µg/g. The mean hair Hg levels were 0.16 µg/g for men and 0.12 µg/g for women, indicating that men had higher hair Hg levels than women. Total hair Hg was found to be significantly associated with age, gender and fish consumption frequency. 98 % of the total sample had hair Hg concentrations less than 1.0 µg/g, i.e, within safe dose, whereas only 2 % had Hg concentrations greater than 1.0 µg/g, thereby exceeding the safe dose. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Singh R.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Sharma B.S.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

Air samples for PM10 (dp<10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) were collected from March 2007 to February 2008 near Taj Mahal-a historically sensitive site in Agra. Each sample collected on 20.3×25.4-cm Whatman quartz microfiber filter using respirable dust sampler was analyzed gravimetrically for mass concentrations and chemically for elements such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Cd, Ba, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and inorganic ions such as NH4 +, K +, SO 4 2-, NO3 -, F -, and Cl - by ion chromatograph. Annual average of PM10 155.47±77.97 μg/m 3 was three times high the annual average NAAQ standard of 50 μg/m 3 for sensitive area. PM 10 as well as K +, Cl -, As, and Pb were higher in winter while crust elements and secondary aerosols were higher in summer. The average equivalent ratio of NH4 + to sum up of SO 4 2 - and NO 3 - was greater than unity which indicates high source strength of ammonia and alkaline nature of aerosols in Agra. Source apportionment of PM 10 was carried out by factor analysis using principal component analysis (varimax rotated factor matrix method) of SPSS. Five sources contributing to PM 10 were identified as crust material, vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, coal and biomass burning, and secondary aerosols. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source

Saxena N.K.,P.A. College | Saxena N.K.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Khan M.A.,Anand Engineering College | Pourush P.K.S.,P.A. College | And 2 more authors.
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications

The optimization of cutoff frequency range of magnetically biased switchable microstrip circular patch antenna, fabricated on ferrite substrate, by the application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) to be reported. The fitness functions for the GA program is developed using nonreciprocal behavior approach of ferrite substrate under external magnetic field for the analysis of switchability of microstrip antenna. The study of switching behavior incorporated the ordinary and extraordinary waves propagation phenomenon. The computed results are in good agreement with the results obtained experimentally and trained artificial neural network analysis. In this ANN training Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks is used. All programming related to Genetic Algorithm and ANN analysis performed by MatLab 7.1. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. Source

Chaudhary S.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Singh H.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Singh S.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Singh V.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Singh V.,Rbs College
Indian Journal of Agronomy

A field experiment was conducted during 2008–10 at Bichpuri, Agra on a zinc-deficient soil, to assess the direct and residual effect of different levels of applied Zn on yield of green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] and wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol.] and uptake of nutrients by the crops and soil fertility under greengram–wheat crop sequence. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with 5 levels of zinc (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg/ha) with 4 replications. An application of 5 kg Zn/ha to greengram recorded significantly highest plant height (53.5 cm), pods/plant (35.8), seeds/pod (12.8) and 1,000-grain weight (32.04 g). Zinc fertilization in preceding greengram crop at 7.5 kg was found to be best for growth and yield attributes of wheat. Green gram crop responded significantly up to 5 kg Zn/ha by producing 1,052 kg grain and 1,816 kg straw/ha. The residual effect in wheat crop was significant at 7.5 kg Zn/ha and grain and straw yield increments were to the extent of 15.3 and 12.4% respectively. The content and yield of protein in both the crops increased significantly with an increase level of zinc. The uptake of Zn by both the crops increased significantly by increasing levels of zinc. A phenomenal increase in N and K uptake, except of P and S, was recorded in greengram and wheat crop due to increasing levels of zinc up to 5 and 7.5 kg/ha respectively. DTPA-extractable Zn was reduced in the control plot after harvesting of wheat. At higher levels of Zn, sufficient DTPA-extractable Zn (0.80 mg/kg) remained in the soil after growing 2 crops and further crops could be taken without the application of Zn. The values of efficiency indices decreased with the increase in levels of zinc. Net returns and benefit: cost ratio were the highest with 5 kg Zn/ha in the greengram-–wheat crop sequence. © 2014, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved. Source

Saxena N.K.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Singh B.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University | Kumar N.,Solid State Physics Laboratory | Pourush P.K.S.,Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar University
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications

An experimental study of microstrip triangle patch antenna designed and fabricated on LiTiZn ferrite substrate is presented. This antenna geometry has been optimized with IE3D and lithographed on 2 mm thick LiTiZn ferrite substrate. LiTiZn polycrystalline substrate has been synthesized using solid state reaction technique and further characterized for microwave application. We have computed various important antenna parameters such as return-loss, bandwidth, directivity, gain, radiation power, etc. for synthesized ferrite as well as on RT-duroid substrate. A comparison of these results has also been presented. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH All rights reserved. Source

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