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Maqsood S.,United Arab Emirates University | Benjakul S.,Prince of Songkla University | Balange A.K.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Effect of tannic acid (0.02% and 0.04%) and ethanolic kiam wood extract (EKWE) (0.04% and 0.08%) on lipid oxidation and textural properties of fish emulsion sausages during 20 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. Control samples (C) had the highest peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value up to day 16 and 8 of storage, respectively. With the addition of tannic acid and EKWE, PV and TBARS values in the sausages were retarded effectively, compared to the control (P < 0.05), especially when the tannic acid and EKWE at higher level were used. At the same level, EKWE showed the lower ability in retarding the lipid oxidation, in comparison with tannic acid. Tannic acid at both levels (0.02% and 0.04%) was also effective in retarding the formation of fishy odour in the samples throughout the storage, compared to the control and EKWE treated samples (P < 0.05). Both tannic acid and EKWE had no detrimental effect on the sensory attributes of sausages. However, EKWE treated sample had lower L * and higher a* and ΔE* values, compared to the control samples (P < 0.05). After 20 days of storage, the sample added with 0.04% tannic acid had higher hardness, gumminess and chewiness, compared with others (P < 0.05). Samples added with 0.04% tannic acid also displayed more compact structure with no visible voids. Furthermore, oil droplets with smaller size were dispersed more uniformly, compared to others. Thus, tannic acid (0.02% and 0.04%) and EKWE (0.08%) were effective in retarding lipid oxidation and fishy odour development as well as could maintain the textural properties of fish emulsion sausages during the refrigerated storage of 20 days. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Meshram N.A.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University | Ismail S.,Marathwada Agricultural University | Patil V.D.,Marathwada Agricultural University
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2016

Investigations were carried out during 2011-12 and 2012-13 to evaluate the long term effect of organic manuring and inorganic fertilization on humus fractions, microbial and enzymatic activities in a Vertisol (Typic Haplusterts) by collecting soil samples from long-term fertilizer experiments commenced from 2006-07 at V. N. Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India under an intensive soybeansafflower cropping system. Two years pooled results indicated that continuous cultivation with addition of 100% NPK along with organic farm yard manure (FYM) significantly improved the content of soil humin, humic acid, fulvic acid and humic acid: fulvic acid (HA:FA) ratio. The treatment also contributed significantly to the biological properties of soil with respect to CO2 evolution (56.40 mg 100 g-1 soil 24 hr-1), soil microbial biomass carbon (300.10 μg g-1), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (52.32 μg g-1), soil bacteria (229.42 CFU × 107 g-1soil), soil actinomycetes (54.53 CFU ×106 g-1soil), dehydrogenase enzyme (51.07 μg TPF g-1soil 24 hr-1), acid and alkaline phosphatase (76.08 and 160.65 μg p-NP g-1 soil 24 hr-1) activity under the soybean-safflower cropping system. However, soil fungi (8.68 CFU × 104 g-1 soil) increased significantly due to the application of only 10 Mg ha-1 FYM and it was at par with 100% NPK+FYM. Further, treating plots with 150% NPK was found equally good in improving soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) and soil organic carbon (SOC). It can be concluded from these experimental findings that the balanced use of fertilizers continuously either alone or in combination with organic manure is necessary for sustaining soil health in a soybeansafflower cropping system on Vertisols.

Gunaga R.P.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University | Kanfade A.H.,Conservator of Forest Social Forestry
Journal of Forest Science | Year: 2011

The seed production area (SPA) is an improved plantation managed for production of quality seeds for a large-scale plantation programme. The soil nutrient is one of several factors affecting seed production among SPAs. The status of soil nutrients and their effect on seed production are poorly understood. Hence, the present study was undertaken in 20 seed production areas located in different seed zones of Karnataka, South India. Results showed that there was a greater variation among SPAs in various soil properties like soil pH, organic carbon, available NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). Some of the studied parameters recorded significant variations among three different depths: 0-20 (top), 20-40 (middle) and 40-60 cm (bottom). For instance, organic carbon and available potassium showed significant variations at different depths, where the highest content was recorded in the top layer, followed by middle and bottom layers. Considering associations between soil properties and tree growth, organic carbon was positively associated with dbh (diameter at breast height; r = 0.500), stem roundness (r = 0.351) and stem volume (r = 0.250). Similarly, available nitrogen positively influenced the stem volume (r = 0.250). Though the fruit yield varied among SPAs, none of the studied soil parameters showed a significant influence on fruit yield indicating that some other factors like genetic ones, phenology, rainfall overlapping with peak flowering might control it. Data on site quality showed that all existing SPAs studied were growing in poor site conditions, however, this could be one of the factors affecting overall seed yield among SPAs. Hence, it is recommended to undertake a few important silvicultural interventions like application of fertilizer/organic manure, soil working, spraying of floral hormone and others to improve the existing seed production level.

Chidley H.G.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Kulkarni R.S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Kulkarni R.S.,Indian Institute of Science | Pujari K.H.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Alphonso is a highly favoured and exported mango cultivar among the vast mango germplasm of India. Being a climacteric fruit, ethylene plays an important role in ripening of mango. For deeper understanding of effect of pre-climacteric ethylene treatment on volatile profiles of Alphonso mango, 26 volatiles were tracked through six ripening stages of pulp and skin of ethylene-treated and control Alphonso fruits. The study revealed accelerated ripening in terms of early appearance of ripening-specific compounds, lactones and mesifuran, upon ethylene treatment. While the level of lactones remained unaffected, the mesifuran level vastly increased upon ethylene treatment. Skin showed high terpene content while pulp had higher amount of lactones compared to skin. This work points towards involvement of ethylene as a natural hormone in the biosynthesis of lactones and furanones in naturally ripened fruits; whereas, an increase in the terpene level during ripening appears to be independent of ethylene. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kulkarni R.S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Chidley H.G.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Pujari K.H.,Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Agricultural University | Giri A.P.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Gupta V.S.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

Alphonso, one of the most popular cultivars of mango in India is known to exhibit geographic variation in the flavour of ripe fruits. To get chemical insight into this difference, volatiles were studied in the ripening fruits of Alphonso mangoes from three cultivation locations in India. Ripe fruits from Deogad had lower content of mono- and sesquiterpenes and higher content of lactones and furanones as compared to the fruits from Dapoli; whereas fruits from Vengurle had average quantities of these chemicals in comparison with Deogad and Dapoli fruits. This variation was clearly reflected as separate clustering of the localities in the Principal Component Analysis. The localities were indistinguishable from each other in terms of raw fruit volatiles. This study exemplifies a case of phenotypic plasticity; since the plants chosen were clonally propagated, such geographic variation in the volatiles can be attributed to varied abiotic conditions at these three localities. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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