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Duggal S.,Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital | Chugh T.D.,BLK Superspeciality Hospital | Duggal A.K.,Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Avadh University
Clinical and Developmental Immunology | Year: 2012

HIV or human immunodeficiency virus infection has assumed worldwide proportions and importance in just a span of 25 years. Continuous research is being done in many parts of the world regarding its treatment and vaccine development, and a lot of money has flown into this. However, fully understanding the mechanisms of immune depletion has still not been possible. The focus has also been on improving the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS through education, counselling, and nutritional support. Malnutrition further reduces the capacity of the body to fight this infection by compromising various immune parameters. Knowledge of essential components of nutrition and incorporating them in the management goes a long way in improving quality of life and better survival in HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2012 Shalini Duggal et al.

Duggal S.,Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital | Chugh T.D.,BLK Superspeciality Hospital
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Pasteurella multocida has rarely been reported as a cause of brain abscess. A 14 year old child was brought to the pediatric emergency department with fever, headache and weakness in left side of the body. Investigations revealed subdural and maxillary sinus abscesses from which Pasteurella multocida and Streptococcus sanguis were concurrently isolated. The case was successfully managed by parenteral ceftriaxone. History revealed frequent exposures with a pet dog. The present case underscores the importance of educating the pet owners, especially children about cross-over of bacteria resulting in serious infections. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

Duggal S.,Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital | Kaur N.,Dr. R.M.L. PGIMER and Hospital | Hans C.,Dr. R.M.L. PGIMER and Hospital
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2011

Introduction: MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) deserves special attention in health care settings. It becomes difficult to treat this infection/eradicate its colonization once it has established. However, its spread can be controlled. An increase in MRSA isolation from the wound swabs of the burns patients over a period of four months prompted us to undertake the present investigation. Material and Methods: Eleven HCWs (Health Care workers) were screened. Hand smears and nasal swabs were cultured and identified by standard microbiological methods. A re-orientation programme was arranged for all HCWs in the burns ward and the importance of standard work precautions, especially hand hygiene was highlighted. Swabs were taken from the same workers after six weeks. Results: Out of eleven health care workers, seven were found to be MRSA carriers (63.6%). Swabs which were taken from the same workers after six weeks, revealed a decrease in the MRSA colonization in the hands by 75% and in the nose by 25%. Also, the number of MRSA isolations from the wound swabs of patients in the burns ward decreased from 35.3% to 13.9%. Conclusion: The current study emphasizes the need for an early diagnosis of MRSA and for being vigilant so that if any outbreak of multidrug resistant organisms occurs in a ward/ ICU, steps to control them can be initiated at the earliest. Italso highlights the importance of hand hygiene so that the hands that deliver care may not deliver germs.

Kala P.,Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital | Khare P.,Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital
Journal of Cytology | Year: 2014

Background: Cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection caused by the larva of Taenia solium, is quite a common disease in our part of the world, but its incidence is often underestimated. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays an important role in early detection of this disease, especially when the lesion is located in anatomically approachable superficial locations. Aims: The aim was to study role of FNAC in the diagnosis of cysticercosis. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the data of 137 patients with palpable nodules, who were diagnosed as having or suspicious of cysticercosis on FNAC, were retrieved and analyzed. Results: In 129 (94.2%) cases, a definitive diagnosis of cysticercosis was obtained in the form of parts of parasite tegument, hooklets, parenchymatous portion and calcareous corpuscles. In the background, giant cells, mixed inflammatory cells, and epithelioid cells were present. In remaining 8 (5.8%) cases, larval fragments could not be identified on the aspirates, and the diagnosis of parasitic inflammation was suggested on the basis of other cytological findings such as clear fluid aspirate, presence of eosinophils, histiocytes, foreign body giant cells, a typical granular dirty background, etc. Follow-up biopsy in these 8 cases confirmed the diagnosis of cysticercosis in 7 (87.5%) while in 1 (12.5%) case, histopathology was suggestive of parasitic cyst. Conclusion: Fine-needle aspiration cytology in cysticercosis is a low-cost outpatient procedure. The cytological diagnosis is quite straightforward in cases where the actual parasite structures are identified in the smears. In other cases, a cytological diagnosis of suspicious of cysticercosis can be given if the cytological findings suggest the same.

Malik I.,Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital | Wadhwa R.,Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital
Anesthesiology Research and Practice | Year: 2016

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), a minimally invasive method for removal of renal calculi, was initially started in the 1950s but gained popularity about two decades later and has now become standard practice for management. There has been an immense improvement in technique and various guidelines have been established for treatment of renal stones. However, it has its own share of complications which can be attributed to surgical technique as well as anesthesia related complications. PubMed and Google search yielded more than 30 articles describing the different complications seen in this procedure, out of which 15 major articles were selected for writing this review. The aim of this review article is to describe the implications of the complications associated with PCNL related to the anesthesiologist. The anesthesiologist is as much responsible for the management of the patient perioperatively as the surgeon. Therefore, it is mandatory to be familiar with the various complications, some of which may be life threatening and he should be able to manage them efficiently. The paper also analyses the advantages and drawbacks of the available options in anesthesia, that is, general and regional, both of which are employed for PCNL. © 2016 Indira Malik and Rachna Wadhwa.

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